Research Article

A Review of Membrane Computing Models for Complex Ecosystems and a Case Study on a Complex Giant Panda System

Figure 1

A portion of classified PDP systems used for modelling ecosystems. (a) A single-environment PDP system with two membranes. (b) A multienvironment PDP system with four environments with the same P system skeleton placed inside each environment (their internal structure being omitted). The system shows population activity of the four environments to .