Research Article

A General Model of Population Dynamics Accounting for Multiple Kinds of Interaction

Figure 2

Nullclines and phase space for an antagonistic system where both populations cooperate intraspecifically. Dashed lines represent , and while solid lines are the nullclines (orange for and black for ). (a) fulfils the condition , and flux lines inside the rectangle do not point out of this region. (b), and some flux lines go out of the rectangle. Parameters: , , .