A General Model of Population Dynamics Accounting for Multiple Kinds of Interaction
Phase space and trajectories for two populations involved in a predator-prey interaction. To the left, we have a case with a lower than to the right, . Cooperation among prey allows a new intermediate solution, which is unstable and acts in the same way as in Figure 1. Also, as greater cooperation decreases the predatory term, and the relation may become commensalistic at some points. Here, , , , and .