A General Model of Population Dynamics Accounting for Multiple Kinds of Interaction
Phase space and trajectories for two populations involved in an antagonist interaction. To the left, we have a case with a lower than to the right, . Cooperation among predators allows two new partial extinctions of prey, one stable and one unstable, in the same way in Figure 1 but on the predators axis. The coexistence located at the carrying capacity of the prey remains unstable. Here, .