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Effect of Heat and Mass Transfer and Magnetic Field on Peristaltic Flow of a Fractional Maxwell Fluid in a Tube
Magnetic field and the fractional Maxwell fluids’ impacts on peristaltic flows within a circular cylinder tube with heat and mass transfer were evaluated while assuming that they are preset with a low Reynolds number and a long wavelength. The analytical solution was deduced for temperature, concentration, axial velocity, tangential stress, and coefficient of heat transfer. Many emerging parameters and their effects on the aspects of the flow were illustrated, and the outcomes were expressed via graphs. Finally, some graphical presentations were made to assess the impacts of various parameters in a peristaltic motion of the fractional fluid in a tube of different nature. The present investigation is essential in many medical applications, such as the description of the gastric juice movement of the small intestine in inserting an endoscope.
Numerous implementations have drawn interest of physicists, mathematicians, and engineers on magneto-hydrodynamic flow issues. In some applications and geothermal studies, metal alloy substantiation processes are optimized Sources, management of waste fuel, regulation of underground propagation and pollution of chemicals, waste, the construction of energy turbines for MHD, magnetic equipment for wound therapy and cancer tumour treatment, reduction of bleeding during surgery and transport of targeted magnetic particles as medicines. Several extensive works of literature on that fertile field are now available in [1, 2]. Saqib et al.  clarified the nonlinear motion of the non-Newtonian fractional model fluid problem. Rashed and Ahmed  produced a numerical solution for dusty nanofluids peristaltic motion in a channel using a shooting method. The slip effect’s problem on a peristaltic flow of the fractional fluid of second-grade over a cylindrical tube was examined by Rathod and Tuljappa . Vajravelu et al.  obtained the velocity, temperature, and concentration with a magnetic field of a Carreau fluid in a channel with the heat and mass transfer. Ali et al.  discussed magnetic field effects on a blood flow that the blood was characterized as the Casson fluid. Zhao et al.  explored the motion natural convection temperature of a fraction with a magnetic field of viscoelastic fluid through a porous medium. Abd-Alla et al.  were researching the magnetic field’s impact on a peristaltic motion of the fluid through the cylindrical cavity. Afzal et al.  analyzed the effect of the diffusivity convection and magnetic field in nanofluids on the peristaltic motion through the nonuniform channel. Heat and mass transfer’s effects and magnetic field of the peristaltic motion in a planar channel were examined by Hayat and Hina . The impact of the temperature and the magnetic field of peristaltic motion through a porous medium was debated by Srinivas and Kothandapani . Ramzan et al.  discussed the heat flux and magnetic field’s influences in Maxwell fluid flow through a two-way strained surface. Rachid  calculated the movement of viscoelastic fluid peristaltic transport under the Maxwell fractional model. The impact of a viscosity and a magnetic field of the peristaltic motion of synovial nanofluid in an asymmetric channel was reconnoitered by Ibrahim et al. . Aly and Ebaid  inspected the slip conditions' effects of a peristaltic motion of nanofluids. Carrera et al.  checked the extension of a fractional Maxwell fluid and viscosity to the peristaltic motion. Zhao  exhibited the convection flow, the magnetic field, and velocity slip of a peristaltic motion of a fractional fluid. Abd-Alla et al.  obtained the solution to the peristaltic motion problem in an endoscope tube. The analytical solution of the transport of viscoelastic fluid through a channel in the fractional peristalsis movement model was presented by Tripathi et al. . The magnetic field effect on peristaltic movement in a vertical annulus was exposed by Nadeem and Akbar . Srinivas et al.  were determining the effects on Newtonian fluid’s peristaltic movement into porous channels of wall slip conditions, magnetic field, and heat transfer. Recent research expansions on the subject beginning from [23–33].
This paper aims to inspect the impacts of magnetic fields, heat and mass transfer, and fractional Maxwell fluids on the peristaltic flow of Jeffrey fluids. Both two-dimensional equations of motion and heat and mass transfer are generalized under the presence of low Reynolds numbers and a long wavelength. The temperature, concentration, axial velocity, tangential stress, and coefficient of heat transfer are empirical solutions, and the wave shape is found. In the problem, the relevant parameters are specified pictorially. The findings obtained are displayed and discussed graphically. For physicists, engineers, and individuals interested in developing fluid mechanics, the outcomes described in this paper are essential. The different potential fluid mechanical flow parameters for the Jeffrey peristaltic fluid are also supposed to serve as equally good theoretical estimates. Indeed, the current investigation is firmly believed to receive considerable attention from the researchers towards further peristaltic development with a variety of applications in physiological, modern technology, and engineering.
2. Formulation of the Problem
Take the MHD peristaltic flow through uniform coaxial tubes of a viscoelastic fluid through the fractional Maxwell fluid model. If the flow is transversely subject to a consistent magnetic field, electrical conductivity exists (Figure 1). Furthermore, it is supposed the inner and outer tube temperatures are and , and concentrations are and , respectively. We picked a cylindrical coordinate and The equations for the tube walls are given by
The equation of the fractional Maxwell fluid is given bywhere .
is defined as follows:where
Also, note that of order concerning and defined as follows:
The transformation between these two frames can be written as follows:
The relevant governed boundary conditions for the considered flow analysis can be listed as
The leading motion equations of the flow for fluid in the wave frame are given bywhere depends only on and . After using the initial condition , we find and
We present the following dimensionless parameters for further analysis:wherever is the wave amplitude.
3. Solution of the Problem
For the abovementioned modifications and nondimensional variables listed earlier, the preceding equations are reduced to
With boundary conditions
4. The Analytical Solution
Furthermore, the hypothesis of the long wavelength approach is also supposed. Now, is very small so that it can be tended to zero. Thus, the dimensionless governing equations (12)–(15) by using this hypothesis may be written asequation (18) specifies that is only a function of .
Temperature, concentration, and axial velocity solutions can be described as follows:where
The heat transfer coefficient is indicated as follows:
So, the solution of heat transfer is given byUsing the definition of the fractional differential operator (5) we find the expression of f as follows:
5. Results and Discussion
In this section, the effect of different parameters is shown graphically in Figures 2–7 such as fractional parameter heat source/sink parameter wave amplitude radius ratio Hatman number Grashof number , relaxation time the Soret number , and the Schmidt number on the temperature the concentration axial velocity tangential stress and heat transfer coefficient . MATLAB software is used to identify the quantitative influences of various physical parameters implicated in the our study. Approximate analytical results are numerically evaluated for temperature, concentration, axial velocity, tangential stress, and the heat transfer coefficient for various values of parameters. For this object, Figures 2–7 are displayed.
Figure 2 has been plotted to clarify the variations of and on the temperature distribution Figure 2 shows that decreases when increases in the range while increases when increases in the range Moreover, decreases when increases in the range while increases when increases in the range In addition, the temperature decreases with the radial increase and the boundary conditions are fulfilled.
Figure 3 displays the discrepancy of the concentration with the radial for various values of and . It is indicated that the concentration increases with increasing and However, decreases with increasing and . In addition, the concentration decreases with the radial increase and the boundary conditions are fulfilled.
The impacts of , and on the axial velocity are illustrated in Figure 4. It is indicated that the axial velocity profiles decreases with increasing and in the range while it increases in the range In addition to this, the axial velocity profile decreases with increasing in the whole range while it increases with increasing in the whole range the axial velocity profiles decreases with increasing in the range as well, and it increases in the range and then decreases again in the range Also, it is observed that the velocity has oscillatory behavior due to peristaltic motion concerned.
The effect of and can be observed from Figure 5, in which the tangential stress is illustrated for the various values of , and . With the increase of and , the tangential stress decreases. Moreover, tangential stress increases with increasing and It is noticed that one can observe the tangential stress is in oscillatory behavior, which may be due to peristalsis.
Figure 6 explains the influence of and on the heat transfer coefficient Obviously, the increase in and increases the amplitude of the heat transfer coefficient in the whole range From Figure 6, one can observe that heat transfer coefficient is an oscillatory behavior in the whole range, which may be due to peristalsis.
Figure 7 is plotted in schematics concern the axial velocity the concentration the temperature and the heat transfer coefficient concerning and axes in the presence , and It is indicated that the axial velocity decreases by increasing Also, the concentration decreases by increasing , the temperature increases with increasing of as well, otherwise the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing For all physical quantities, we obtain the peristaltic flow in 3D overlapping and damping when the state of particle equilibrium is reached and increased. The vertical distance of the curves is greater, with most physical fields moving in peristaltic flow.
The concluding remarks are listed as follows:(1)The axial velocity decreases and increases with the increase of , and due to the increase in the Lorentz force.(1)The temperature increases with the increase of the wave amplitude and radius ratio.(2)The concentration decreases with the increase of both , and it increases with the increase of both and .(3)The tangential stress decreases and increases with the increase of both , , and it increases with the increase both and (4)The study of the phenomenon under effect of , , , , , , , , and was performed.(5)This study has indeed been widely applied in many fields of science, such as medicine and the medical industry. Thus, in the field of fluid mechanics, it is considered as extremely essential. When inserting an endoscope through the small intestine, this study describes the movement of the gastric juice.
|:||Shapes of the wave walls|
|:||Time in a wave frame|
|:||Fractional time derivative parameter|
|:||Rate of the shear strain|
|:||The components of the velocity in a laboratory frame|
|:||The components of the velocity in a wave frame|
|:||The pressure in a laboratory frame|
|:||The pressure in a wave frame|
|:||Fluid’s electric conductance|
|:||The intensity of the external magnetic field|
|:||Linear coefficient of the thermal expansion|
|:||Coefficient of the viscosity at constant concentration|
|:||Heat generation coefficient|
|:||Wave amplitude in the dimensionless form|
|:||The distribution of temperature|
|:||The distribution of concentration|
|:||Inner and outer tube temperature|
|:||Inner and outer tube concentration|
|:||The heat source/sink parameter|
No data were used to support this study.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to Taif University for supporting the present study under Taif University Researchers Supporting Project numbered (TURSP-2020/164).
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