Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome during LaborRead the full article
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Suspected Sugammadex Hypersensitivity following Repeated Administration in the Setting of Multiple Flap Takebacks in a Brief Timespan
Sugammadex hypersensitivity is an uncommon event that typically occurs at higher doses. We report a case of suspected sugammadex hypersensitivity in a patient who developed hypoxia and bronchospasm following three administrations of the standard 2 mg/kg doses of sugammadex within 26 hours due to flap takebacks. Hypersensitivity to sugammadex was not initially suspected given that the patient had previous exposures. Diagnoses of pneumothorax, hemothorax, mucus plug, and tracheal tube malposition were immediately ruled out. Furthermore, the onset of hypoxia with sudden loss of tidal volume, development of high peak airway pressures, and temporal correlation with sugammadex administration all supported bronchospasm secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. Sugammadex is a useful agent for neuromuscular blockade reversal; however, it is critical to carefully examine all adverse reactions. This case report highlights the importance of considering hypersensitivity reactions in the setting of repeat sugammadex administrations in a limited timeframe, such as in free flap reconstruction requiring multiple takebacks to the operating room in the setting of flap compromise.
Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Pediatric Peripheral Nerve Blocks after Traumatic Amputation
Liposomal bupivacaine has been explored for indications in regional anesthesia, but little has been reported about its use in pediatric patients. In March 2021, the FDA approved an indication for liposomal bupivacaine as an infiltrated local anesthetic in children older than the age of six. Despite this recently expanded indication, the literature lacks reports of use for peripheral nerve blockade in children. We describe a case where liposomal bupivacaine was used for femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in a 5-year-old child with traumatic amputation of his lower leg. Pain control was excellent, with no pain or opioid use reported during the first 62 hours. After the regional anesthesia subsided, the patient required in total 4 oral doses of oxycodone 0.1 mg/kg prior to discharge. The patient did not develop chronic pain or phantom limb syndrome. While liposomal bupivacaine is not currently FDA-approved for peripheral nerve blockade in children, this case highlights a potentially effective use of this drug and possible area for further investigation.
Uncommon Occurrence of an Air Embolism during the Preanhepatic Phase of an Orthotopic Liver Transplant
Vascular air embolism (VAE) during liver transplantation usually occurs during the dissection phase of the procedure or during liver reperfusion. If this phenomenon occurs, it can cause significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological complications. Prompt identification of VAE is essential, and the surgeon should be immediately notified. The mainstay treatment is identification and rectification of the source of the air embolus, hemodynamic support, and prevention of further air entrainment. This case report describes the occurrence of a pulmonary air embolism during the preanhepatic phase of an orthotopic liver transplant.
Antisynthetase Syndrome with Severe Interstitial Lung Disease in Pregnancy
Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare multisystem autoimmune disorder which clinically manifests with myositis, arthritis, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and skin hyperkeratosis. Lung involvement represents the most severe form of disease and has rarely been reported in pregnancy. We present the case of a 22-year-old woman with antisynthetase syndrome and severe restrictive pulmonary disease who experienced a successful pregnancy and delivery. We discuss anesthetic considerations and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in caring for parturients with multifactorial medical conditions.
Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Harlequin Ichthyosis
Harlequin ichthyosis is a severe and often fatal form of congenital ichthyosis caused by defective lipid transport which results in a dysfunctional skin barrier. Patients who survive the neonatal period are predisposed to skin infections, sepsis, impaired thermoregulation, and dehydration. The unique skin characteristics can present significant anesthetic challenges. We highlight the relevant anesthetic considerations in a 3-year-old presenting for syndactyly release of the right second and fourth digits. We describe the steps to ensure protection of the fragile skin barrier during establishment of intravenous access and airway management, therefore providing guidance for care of this vulnerable patient population.
Axonal Injury with Persistent Neuropathy following Popliteal Nerve Block for Cheilectomy Surgery
Peripheral nerve blocks are often used for foot and ankle surgery. The occurrence of persistent neurological symptoms thereafter is very rare. Preventive strategies pose no guarantee and uncovering true etiology is often complicated. We discuss a case in which a young, healthy patient developed nerve damage after an uneventful popliteal block and cheilectomy. Nerve conduction studies revealed axonal injury in the distribution area of the sciatic nerve. The neurological symptoms persisted for more than 12 months, emotionally affecting the patient greatly. Patients will primarily report to the orthopedic surgeon, for whom cooperation with anaesthesia and neurology is of importance. Anesthetic involvement probably improves patient satisfaction during complication management.