Table 2: Case reports of cranial nerve palsy after shoulder surgery.

First authorSurgeryPositionAirwayInjuryIS blockNitrous oxide usedDetermined cause

Mullins [1]Open repair or rotator cuffBeach chairOral ETTContralateral hypoglossalNoNAPositioning
Hwang [2]Open repair of humeral fractureBeach chairOral ETTHypoglossalNoNAPositioning
Rhee [3]ArthroscopyBeach chairOral ETTContralateral hypoglossalNoNAPositioning
Rhee [3]ArthroscopyBeach chairOral ETTContralateral hypoglossalNoNAPositioning
Hung [4]ArthroscopySemi-beach-chairOral ETTIpsilateral hypoglossalNoNoIntubation or mask ventilation
Nagai [5]Total shoulderRight lateralLMAContralateral hypoglossalNoYesLMA, N2O, change in position
Cogan [6]ArthroscopyBeach chairOral ETTTapia’s syndromeNoNAPositioning
Boisseau [7]ArthroscopyBeach chairOral ETTIpsilateral Tapia’s syndromeNoNoPositioning
Wadelek [8]ArthroscopySemi-supineLMATapia’s syndromeYesNoLMA and positioning
Johnson [9]Shoulder Mumford ProcedureNANAIpsilateral Tapia’s syndromeYesNADissection of the ascending pharyngeal artery
Dziewas [10]ArthroscopyNAOral ETTHypoglossalNoNAlaryngoscopy
Haslam [11]Total shoulderBeach chairOral ETTContralateral hypoglossalYesNAETT

NA = not available; IS = interscalene block.