Table 3: Additional case reports of postoperative Tapia’s syndrome.

First AuthorSurgeryPositionAirwayThroat PackNitrous Oxide UsedDetermined Cause

Ota [19]Le Fort osteotomy and genioplastyNAtransnasal ETTYesNAIntubation and position
Cinar [22]RhinoplastySemi-recumbentOral ETTYesNoExcessive cuff pressure
Poveda [20]RhinoplastySemi-supineOral ETTYesNoThroat pack and positioning
Yavuzer [39]SeptorhinoplastyUnspecifiedOral ETTYesNAETT
Una [40]Anterior mediastinotomyNAOral ETT fiberoptic intubationNoNAETT
Nalladaru [41]CABGSupineOral ETTNoNAIntubation or positioning
Park [42]Posterior cervical spineConcord positionOral ETTNANAPositioning
Lykoudis [43]RhinoplastyNAOral ETTYesNAThroat pack
Kashyap [44]Repair of mandibular fractureNANasal ETTNANAUnclear
Lim [45]Cervical laminoplastyProneOral ETTNoNoETT and positioning
Sotiriou [46]CABGSupineOral ETTNoNApositioning
Bakhshaee [47]RhinoplastyNAOral ETTYesYesIntubation, ETT, throat pack, controlled hypotension
Varedi [48]Zygomatic arch repairNATransnasal ETTYesNAUnclear
Ghorbani [49]SeptorhinoplastySupine with head elevatedOral ETTYesNAETT, throat pack, position

= bilateral; NA = not available; IS = interscalene block.