Table 4: Additional case reports of postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy.

First authorSurgeryPositionAirwayThroat packNitrous oxide usedDetermined cause

Rubio-Nazabal [21]Open AAA repairNAOral ETTNoNAExcessive cuff pressure
Streppel [18]Sinus surgeryNAOral ETTNoNACalcified ligamentum stylohoideum and intubation
Dearing [26]Molar surgeryNANasal ETTYesNAIntubation or throat pack
Dwiewas [10]Esophageal resectionNAOral ETTNoNAlaryngoscopy
Evers [16]Trans-spenoidal hypophysectomySupineOral ETTYesYesIntubation or throat pack
Ulusoy [27]SeptohinoplastySemi-supineOral ETTYesYesIntubation or mask ventilation
Venkatesh [28]CraniotomyNAOral ETTNoYesAccidental extubation with inflated cuff
King [29]Removal of rush pinsNALMANoYesLMA
Lopes [30]Breast reconstructionLateral decubitus and sittingOral ETTNoNoPositioning
Lopes [30]Breast reductionSemi-sitting and dorsal decubitusOral ETTNoNoPositioning
Yelken [25]Open septoplastyNAOral ETTLikely but unspecifiedNAIntubation and arnold chiari
Michel [17]TonsillectomyNAOral ETTNANAlaryngoscopy
Lo [31]ORIF humerusNALMANoNAMalpositioned LMA
Stewart [32]Knee arthroscopyNALMANoYesExcessive cuff pressure
Baumgarten [33]SeptoplastyNAOral ETTNANAIntubation
Trumpelmann [34]ORIF tibial plateau fractureNALMANAYesLMA and nitrous oxide
Takahoko [35]Hallux valgus correctionSupineLMANoYesLMA and nitrous oxide
Al-Benna [36]Breast augmentation30 degree elevated supineOral ETTNoYesETT
Slaats [37]Exploratory laparoscopySupineOral ETTNoNAIntubation, hematoma near nerve
Sommers [38]Removal of scar tissue behind earsExtreme side rotation of headLMANoNoPositioning

= bilateral; NA = not available; IS = interscalene block.