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Case Reports in Cardiology publishes case reports and case series related to hypertension, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, vascular disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.
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Acute Cardiac Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Spotting the Clot
A middle-aged gentleman presented with a one-week history of progressive dyspnoea on minimal exertion, persistent haemoptysis, and right calf swelling. His only past medical history of note was a recently positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab performed as part of a workplace outbreak screening. A CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) showed bilateral pulmonary thrombi, extensive consolidation, and a left ventricular (LV) thrombus. A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed a dilated LV with severely impaired systolic function and LV thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated with warfarin, commenced on IV diuretics and COVID-19 protocol. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging showed a severely dilated nonischaemic cardiomyopathy with a heavy thrombus burden and a fibrosis pattern in keeping with myocarditis. We present a case of COVID-19-related myocardial dysfunction with high thrombotic burden and a discussion of its management.
Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chronic Total Occlusion after Coronary Perforation
Coronary chronic total occlusions are challenging lesions with high rates of complications related to percutaneous intervention. We describe a successful angioplasty in a patient with a recent coronary perforation, using multiple techniques, such as stick and swap with Stingray, subintimal transcatheter withdrawal, and investment.
A Challenging Case of Genetically and Histologically Diagnosed Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease with Extracorporeal Life Support and Redo Lung Transplantation
Background. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary arterial hypertension characterized by diffuse venous vasculopathy and increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in right-sided heart failure. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old female patient started to have dyspnea with minimal effort and was diagnosed to have pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) with right-sided heart failure. Initially, she was diagnosed to have idiopathic PH. She developed life-threatening pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic shock after pulmonary vasodilator therapy. A genetic study was done and revealed the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene on chromosome 15, which was diagnostic to heritable PVOD. After failure to achieve hemodynamic stabilization with conventional cardiopulmonary support measures, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supported her till bilateral lung transplantation, which was unfortunately complicated by acute graft rejection. After a prolonged intensive care unit stay with 4-month ECMO support, the second bilateral lung transplantation was done, and the patient survived and was discharged. Conclusions. Clinical recognition of PVOD is crucial due to its challenging diagnosis, need for genetic study, rapid deterioration with pulmonary vasodilators, and bad prognosis. Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for eligible candidates.
Nonatheromatous Coronary Kink Causing Angiographic Obstruction: A Rare Structural Anomaly
Ischemic symptoms may be explained by a multitude of coronary pathologies, including coronary artery tortuosity, atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis, coronary vasospasm, or microvascular disease. We present an unusual case of coronary kinking in a patient presenting with exertional jaw pain in the absence of atherosclerotic risk factors. Multimodality imaging, coronary imaging, and coronary physiology helped establish the diagnosis and guide management.
Ischemia Possibly Associated with High Degree Atrioventricular Block
Conduction restoration in second- and third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block after revascularization in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) setting is well established, however this is not the case in non-ACS setting. We present a case of a patient referred for permanent pacemaker implantation, due to high degree AV block (HAVB), who restored his conduction possibly due to targeted revascularization. Thus, this case sheds insight in the reversibility potential of HAVB after revascularization in non-ACS patients, which although signified in current literature, is still far from being a recommendation, due to lack of robust scientific confirmation.
Impella-Supported Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Aggressive Rotational Atherectomy for Heavily Calcified Lesions in Left Main Trunk Bifurcation in a Patient with Severe Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction
The Impella, a percutaneous left ventricular assist device, has been reported to minimize the risk of hemodynamic compromise and improve clinical outcomes during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in complex high-risk indicated patients (CHIPs). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on calcified plaque thickness, which is helpful in determining the indication and endpoint of atherectomy during PCI for calcified lesions. However, there are few reports on OCT-guided aggressive rotational atherectomy with Impella assistance in CHIPs. A 71-year-old man on dialysis for end-stage renal failure was admitted for congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and coronary angiography performed after improvement of heart failure showed severe stenosis with heavily calcified lesions in the left main trunk (LMT) bifurcation and right coronary artery. The patient refused coronary artery bypass surgery and was revascularized using PCI. PCI was started with prophylactic Impella CP insertion because of the high risk of hemodynamic collapse. After OCT-guided rotational atherectomy with 1.5- and 2.0-mm burr toward the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery, respectively, double-kissing culotte stenting was performed in the LMT, and good dilation was obtained. Impella CP was removed immediately after PCI without hemodynamic compromise, and the procedure was completed.