Perioperative Application of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion in an Elderly Patient with Mirror-Image Dextrocardia and Atrial FibrillationRead the full article
Case Reports in Cardiology publishes case reports and case series related to hypertension, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, vascular disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.
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Statin-Induced Triad of Autoimmune Myocarditis, Myositis, and Transaminitis
Despite well-established cardiovascular benefits, statins have been associated with myopathic side effects ranging from myalgias to rhabdomyolysis and autoimmune necrotizing myositis. Statins have not been previously shown to cause myocarditis. Our case highlights this rare entity.
Shock in the Setting of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Relapse
Adult intensivists have increasing exposure to individuals with congenital diseases surviving into adulthood. Solid knowledge bases and early recognition of the possible sequelae of congenital disorders are crucial in caring for these patients. We present a challenging case of shock and relapse of Diamond-Blackfan anemia in a 42-year-old man lost to follow-up for 18 years and highlighted the importance of healthcare transitions into adulthood and the challenges faced by health care systems to develop new strategies successfully transitioning complex pediatric patients to adult care.
Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in a Patient with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy and Complete Atrioventricular Block
This case report presents a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) and complete atrioventricular (AV) block who was treated with permanent pacemaker implantation. A 78-year-old woman with a history of hypertension presented with a 6-month history of palpitations. On initial evaluation, her heart rate was 40 beats/minute. Electrocardiography revealed a complete AV block and T-wave inversion in these leads: I, II, aVL, aVF, and V3–6. Echocardiography showed akinesis from the midventricle to the apex and hyperkinesis on the basal segments. The patient was diagnosed with TCM and complete AV block. Because improvement of TCM may subsequently improve the AV node dysfunction associated with TCM, the patient was admitted for treatment of heart failure without pacemaker implantation. The left ventricular (LV) abnormal wall motion improved gradually; however, the AV block persisted intermittently. On hospital day 14, a pause of 5–6 seconds without LV contraction was observed, and permanent pacemaker implantation was performed. On day 92, echocardiography revealed normal LV wall motion. However, electrocardiography revealed that the pacemaker rhythm with atrial sensing and ventricular pacing remained. Although specific degree of damage that may result from AV block associated with TCM is unknown, some of these patients require pacemaker implantation, despite improvement of abnormality in LV wall motion.
Cardiac Amyloidosis Presenting as Biventricular Systolic Heart Failure
A previously healthy octogenarian presented with new onset heart failure symptoms. Comprehensive multimodality imaging including complete echocardiography with longitudinal strain analysis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), nuclear medicine pyrophosphate (99-mcTcPYP) scan along with biomarker, monoclonal protein analysis, and fat pad biopsy confirmed diagnosis of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis.
Symptomatic Supraventricular Tachycardia Resistant to Adenosine Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Theophylline Use
Theophylline is a potent adenosine receptor antagonist with indirect adrenergic effects that can lead to arrhythmias and metabolic abnormalities such as hypokalemia. Therapeutic toxicity cases have declined over the years mainly due to decreased recommended therapeutic doses and overall decreased usage of this medication due to newer available COPD treatment options. We present a clinical case of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia resistant to adenosine therapy in a patient with theophylline use. This case highlights the importance of comprehensive medication review in acute settings to aid in identifying the underlying etiologies and initiating prompt treatments. It also signifies the importance of reviewing chronic medications in each outpatient visits to ensure continued indication for their use and be able to change them to newer agents per guidelines whenever possible.
Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery Causing Myocardial Ischemia: A Case for a Multimodality Imaging Approach
A 46-year-old man was admitted with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and newly diagnosed acutely decompensated heart failure. Echocardiogram demonstrated left ventricular ejection fraction of 30% with basal inferior and inferolateral akinesis. Coronary angiography showed mild diffuse coronary artery disease and an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary cusp. Further imaging was consistent with ischemia in the right coronary distribution. Etiology of ischemia was thought to be the anomalous right coronary artery, and surgical unroofing of the right coronary ostium was performed. Here, we report a multimodality imaging approach, including cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac computed tomographic angiography, and single-photon emission computed tomography, to support the diagnosis and management of a patient with anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary cusp.