Combined Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome and Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated with COVID-19 in a Pediatric PatientRead the full article
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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome due to Rhabdomyolysis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome following Cardiogenic Shock
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a relatively rare disease that causes rapid demyelination, resulting in pontine and central nervous system damage with various symptoms, including impaired consciousness. It often occurs when hyponatremia is rapidly corrected. However, it can also occur when a normonatremic patient suddenly develops hypernatremia. A 51-year-old man developed cardiogenic shock with impaired consciousness, hyperCKemia, hypernatremia, and hyperglycemia. Osmotic demyelination syndrome secondary to rhabdomyolysis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome was suspected. The patient’s fluid volume decreased because of osmotic diuresis caused by hyperglycemia, and the blood sodium level increased rapidly. The latter resulted in ODS, which in turn resulted in a prolonged disturbance of consciousness, from which he has not yet recovered. ODS has been reported as a serious complication of rapid correction of hyponatremia, although it also occurs when normonatremia leads to hypernatremia. This disease is difficult to diagnose, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is often unremarkable several weeks after its onset. This case of ODS occurred when normonatremia led to hypernatremia, as a result of rhabdomyolysis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. Diagnosis was made based on the MRI brain findings.
Septic Pulmonary Embolism Causing Recurrent Pneumothorax in an Intravenous Drug User without Right-Sided Valvular Vegetation in Infective Endocarditis
The following report illustrates a case of a 36-year-old Caucasian male with intravenous drug use (IVDU) induced septic thrombophlebitis presenting with recurrent unilateral pneumothoraces from septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) without the presence of obvious right-sided valvular vegetation in infective endocarditis (IE), defined as tricuspid or pulmonary valve lesions. Pneumothorax (PTX) has been observed as a rare complication of SPE and is commonly associated with infective right-sided IE, IVDU, and intravascular indwelling catheters. However, this case is novel as it is the very rare documented case of recurrent, unilateral, spontaneous right PTX refractory to multiple chest tube placements in such a setting. Therefore, the absence of detectable right-sided valvular vegetation in IE does not obviate the risk of SPE-induced PTX in IVDU and further expands the realm of infectious and pulmonary consequences of SPE and IVDU.
Esophageal Rupture Presenting with ST Segment Elevation and Junctional Rhythm Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction
Esophageal rupture is a rare but potentially fatal cause of chest pain. The presentation is variable and can mimic other conditions such as aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction (MI). A 71-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease presented to the ED with complaints of acute chest pain and respiratory distress. Over the next 48 hours, the patient developed dynamic ST segment changes on surface electrocardiogram mimicking an inferolateral ST segment elevation MI accompanied by a junctional rhythm. Curiously, his cardiac enzymes remained negative during this time, but his clinical status continued to deteriorate. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated a lower esophageal rupture, and the patient underwent successful endoscopic stenting. While rare, prompt recognition of esophageal rupture is imperative to improving morbidity and mortality. While esophageal rupture has been noted to cause ST segment elevation before, this appears to be the first case associated with a junctional rhythm.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in Patient with Granulomatosis with Polyangitis
Granulomatosis with polyangitis (GPA) is characterized by a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small arteries and veins. It most commonly affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. However, other organs including the gastrointestinal tract can be affected. Gastrointestinal manifestations of GPA are rare and can include ischemia, bowel infarction, and perforation. Hemorrhage is an extremely rare presentation of GPA. We present a case of a woman with GPA and pulmonary renal syndrome on treatment who presents with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Caused by Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in a Pediatric Patient and Review of the Literature
Background. Following acute traumatic brain injury, cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is considered as an important cause of hyponatremia apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Differentiation between the two syndromes is crucial for the initiation of an adequate treatment. Case Presentation. We report a 15-year-old female adolescent, admitted to intensive care for acute severe traumatic brain injury. During his hospitalization, she developed a hyponatremia with an increase of urine output and hypovolemia. So, the most probable diagnosis was CSW. Initially, she was treated by hypertonic saline and volume expansion. However, his sodium level continued to fall despite infusion of hypertonic saline. That is why fludrocortisone was introduced initially at 50 μg/day then increased to 150 μg/day. Fludrocortisone was continued for the next months. Serum sodium level was 138 mmol/L after one month of treatment. Conclusion. Hyponatremia may occur after severe traumatic brain injury that is why an adequate treatment initiated on time is necessary in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Lung Abscess with a Refractory Bronchopleural Fistula Saved from Potentially Fatal Sepsis by Omentoplasty and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Controlling air leaks during thoracic drainage in patients with lung abscesses caused by bronchopleural fistulas is challenging. To reduce the occurrence of air leaks, positive pressure ventilation should be avoided whenever possible. A 69-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of gradually worsening chest pain. He had lost consciousness and was brought to the emergency room. His SpO2 was approximately 70%, and his systolic blood pressure was approximately 60 mmHg. Chest radiography and computed tomography revealed findings suggestive of a right pyothorax. Therefore, thoracic drainage was performed. However, the patient’s respiratory status did not improve, and his circulatory status could not be maintained. Therefore, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was introduced after the improvement in circulation by noradrenaline and fluid resuscitation, resulting in adequate oxygenation and ventilation without the use of high-pressure ventilator settings. Subsequently, omentoplasty for a refractory bronchopleural fistula was successfully performed, and the air leak was cured without recurrence of the lung abscess.