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Case Reports in Critical Care
Volume 2014, Article ID 906283, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/906283
Case Report

Starvation Ketoacidosis: A Cause of Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis in Pregnancy

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10457, USA

Received 21 February 2014; Revised 6 May 2014; Accepted 6 May 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Won S. Park

Copyright © 2014 Nupur Sinha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pregnancy is a diabetogenic state characterized by relative insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, elevated free fatty acids and increased ketogenesis. In this setting, short period of starvation can precipitate ketoacidosis. This sequence of events is recognized as “accelerated starvation.” Metabolic acidosis during pregnancy may have adverse impact on fetal neural development including impaired intelligence and fetal demise. Short periods of starvation during pregnancy may present as severe anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA). We present a 41-year-old female in her 32nd week of pregnancy, admitted with severe AGMA with pH 7.16, anion gap 31, and bicarbonate of 5 mg/dL with normal lactate levels. She was intubated and accepted to medical intensive care unit. Urine and serum acetone were positive. Evaluation for all causes of AGMA was negative. The diagnosis of starvation ketoacidosis was established in absence of other causes of AGMA. Intravenous fluids, dextrose, thiamine, and folic acid were administered with resolution of acidosis, early extubation, and subsequent normal delivery of a healthy baby at full term. Rapid reversal of acidosis and favorable outcome are achieved with early administration of dextrose containing fluids.