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Case Reports in Critical Care
Volume 2015, Article ID 310185, 3 pages
Case Report

Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), 14000 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
2Department of Dermatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), 14000 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 20 April 2015; Accepted 13 May 2015

Academic Editor: Gil Klinger

Copyright © 2015 Erika P. Plata-Menchaca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion.