Table 1: Complications of nasogastric tubes insertion.

Organ/systemComplication

NasopharyngealHemorrhage  
Ulceration  
Oropharyngeal coiling  
Eustachian tube misplacement

LarynxTrauma  
Ulceration  
Vocal cord dysfunction  
Vocal cord paralysis

GastrointestinalCoiling  Knotted tube  
Hemorrhage  Reflex esophagitis  
Ulceration  Pneumoperitoneum  
Perforation  Esophageal feeding  
Tracheoesophageal fistulaSepsis

Pleuropulmonary (2%)Aspiration of gastric content/enteral feed: pneumonitis, pneumonia, empyema, abscess, and sepsis  
Bronchial misplacement: atelectasis, collapse, pulmonary hemorrhage, and perforation
Intrapleural placement: pneumothorax (60%), haemothorax, hydrothorax, and bronchopleural fistula  
Airway obstruction: early or late; respiratory distress and ventilator failure

MediastinalMediastinal misplacement  
Mediastinitis  
Pneumomediastinum

OthersNasogastric tube syndrome (upper airway obstruction secondary to ulceration of postcricoid region causing
vocal cord abduction paralysis)  
Intracranial misplacement  
Erosion to large vessels