Table 2: Factors increasing the risk of nasogastric tube misplacement.

NGT factorsTechnique factorsPatient factors

(i) Fine bore(i) Inexperienced operator(i) Altered mental status
(ii) Stiff monofilament core(ii) Incorrect patient position(ii) Critically ill patients
(iii) Stiffening wire(iii) Blind insertion(iii) Endotracheal intubation
(iv) Absent radiopaque marker(iv) Incorrect NGT length(iv) Tracheostomy
(v) Flexible polymer constriction(v) Repeated attempts (v) Use of sedation
(vi) Insufficient lubricant(vi) Use of neuromuscular blocker agents
(vii) Anatomical facial abnormalities
(viii) Facial trauma/inhalation injury
(ix) Anticoagulation/thrombophilia
(x) Upper airway/esophageal injury
(xi) Nasopharyngeal pathology
(xii) Following lung transplant