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Case Reports in Dentistry publishes case reports and case series in all areas of dentistry, including periodontal diseases, dental implants, oral pathology, as well as oral and maxillofacial surgery.
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Gingival Biopsy to Detect Mosaicism in Overgrowth Syndromes: Report of Two Cases of Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome with Periodontal Anomalies
Background. Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) is a rare overgrowth syndrome caused by postzygotic activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene. Aim. To illustrate the benefits of gingival biopsy in the genetic diagnosis of overgrowth syndromes. Design. Gingival biopsy was performed on a 13-year-old patient and a 16-year-old patient with MCAP and who suffered from periodontal disease. PIK3CA sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from gingival biopsies, blood, and saliva. Results. Pathogenic p.Glu365Lys and p.Glu545Asp PIK3CA mutations were found in the gingival biopsies with an allelic frequency of 22% and 35%, respectively, while they were undetectable in blood or saliva. The genetic diagnosis of MCAP through detection of PIK3CA somatic mosaicism in a periodontal biopsy is unprecedented. Conclusions. Considering the tissue distribution and level of somatic mosaicism for PIK3CA mutation, the composite embryologic origin of periodontium and its high fibroblast cell content make it an ideal target for molecular analysis in overgrowth syndromes, and multidisciplinary approach including paediatric dentists should be encouraged. In addition, our clinical findings suggest that periodontal disease is part of the MCAP phenotypic spectrum and should be systematically investigated.
Piezoelectric-Assisted Removal of a Mandibular Cementoossifying Fibroma: An Innovative Technique
Diagnosis of cementoossifying fibroma is oriented by the clinical and radiological aspects of the lesion. Histology confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is surgical with enucleation-resection depending on the lesion size or wider resection with bone reconstruction in cases of large fibromas. The use of piezoelectric bone surgery is associated with low surgical trauma, exceptional precision, and fast healing response. It also allows easy performance of complex osteotomy and reduces the necessary dimensions of mucoperiosteal dissection. The purpose of the present article was to present the advantages of piezoelectric-assisted surgical removal of a cementoosseous fibroma of the mandible and to provide a precise description of the procedure using atraumatic surgery.
Full-Mouth Screw-Retained Implant-Supported Rehabilitation with Multiunit Abutments Using Virtual Guided Surgery and Digital Prosthetics Protocol
Total rehabilitation is one of the most sophisticated kinds of dental implant-supported prosthetics. The usage of multiunit abutment system allows the clinician an accurate and passive fitting of screw-retained full-arch construction. In addition, it retains a condition of soft and bone tissues around prosthetic construction. The aim of this case is to demonstrate a modern approach in planning and realisation of full-mouth screw-retained dental implant prosthetics. A 59-year-old patient had an extraction of all failed teeth on upper and lower jaws with immediate 16 implant placement (8 implants on maxilla and 8 implants on mandible) using surgical template. Multiunit abutments were installed intraoperatively. Temporary constructions were fixed immediately after surgery. After 3 months of dental impressions, plaster models and their scan were prepared to make final screw-retained zirconium dioxide constructions. Reevaluation of functional and aesthetic result of the treatment was made after 12 months.
Multifunctional Templates for Minimized Osteotomy, Implantation, and Palatal Distraction with a Mini-Screw-Assisted Expander in Schizodontism and Maxillary Deficit
Purpose. Schizodontism is complete separation of a dental germ. It results in a twin tooth and supernumerary teeth. The treatment of transverse constriction in combination with supernumerary dental germs and impacted central incisors can pose a challenge, especially in young patients, when the number of permanent teeth is not adequate to ensure secure anchorage. The use of navigation templates based on three-dimensional X-ray images allows for precise insertion of temporary mini-implants for the acquisition of palatal distractors. In addition, templates allow for minimally invasive biopsies and osteotomies. Methods. The treatment of schizodontism, dentitio tarda, and transverse constriction is to be assessed as an interdisciplinary method by using mini-screw-assisted devices. Minimized osteotomy of impacted supernumerary teeth or dental implantation can be carried out in a one-step-procedure based on digital preplanning and prefabrication of orthodontic devices. Results. Multifunctional templates allow for early planning, preoperative fabrication, and intraoral fixation of orthodontic appliances. In the case of an adolescent patient, a sustainable, interdisciplinary treatment concept could be demonstrated that shows age-appropriate gnathological development and stable growth conditions over a follow-up period of 10 years. Conclusion. One can likely assume that multifunctional templates allow for minimally invasive one-step surgeries as an interdisciplinary tool between orofacial surgery and modern orthodontics.
Clinical, Histopathological, and Management Challenges of Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma: A Case Report of a Patient Presenting with Multiple Facial Papules
Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign skin tumours of the pilosebaceous apocrine unit with follicular differentiation. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) is a considerably rare condition inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. We present a case of a 15-year-old male who presented with multiple papulo-nodular lesions in the central face and a family history of a similar type of lesions from his mother. Significance of consideration of various clinical differential diagnoses with serious pathological outcomes, strategies followed in the diagnosis including histopathological evaluation aided by immunohistochemical investigations, and subsequent challenges that may be faced in the management of MFT in light of the presentation with multiple facial papules are documented in this case report.
Treatment of Localized Gingival Recession by Means Tunnel Technique after the Orthodontic Treatment. A Follow-Up of 1 Year
Facial and dental esthetics are the objectives of dental treatment, and, for this, it is necessary that specialties such as periodontics and orthodontics work together. The objective of this article is to report a clinical case with the solution of localized gingival recession after orthodontic treatment, using tunneled subepithelial connective tissue grafts with follow-up for 1 year. The patient underwent orthodontic treatment for 1 year. Prior to the start of treatment, a gingival recession of 5 mm was already present on tooth 31. One month after the completion of treatment, the patient was subjected to a tunneled subepithelial connective tissue graft, with the purpose of covering the exposed root. We observed the effectiveness of the procedure and patient satisfaction with the results obtained. The subepithelial connective tissue graft was successful in this case, and the collaboration of specialists is important to provide the best treatment for the patient.