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Case Reports in Endocrinology publishes case reports and case series related to the endocrine system and its associated diseases.
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Acute Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Misdiagnosed as Acute Cholecystitis
Hypopituitarism refers to insufficient secretion of the pituitary hormones. Patients with acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency may be presented with fatigue, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia, nausea, vomiting, or nonspecific abdominal pain. This study described an unusual case of hypopituitarism in a patient who presented with general abdominal pain, abdominal tenderness, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. At first, the patient was admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but after treatment of hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency, his symptoms resolved completely, without the need for surgery. Hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patients who present with acute abdomen, hypotension, or hypoglycemia.
Simultaneous Coexistence of Thyrotropin-Prolactin-Secreting Adenoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Background. The thyrotropin-secreting adenomas are very rare and even more rare when they simultaneously coexist with thyroid carcinoma. So far, only sixteen cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of successful management of a concurrent case of thyrotropin-prolactinoma with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Case Presentation. A 50-year-old Moroccan woman underwent a total thyroidectomy and complementary totalization by iratherapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma, who presented persistence of an inappropriate secretion of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH > 4 mUI/L) despite of levothyroxine suppressive therapy (300 μg/d). After eliminating noncompliance, interfering medicines, and thyroid malabsorption, a pituitary adenoma (12 mm) was documented at magnetic resonance imaging. The patient has had transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy with histology confirming a thyrotropin-prolactin-secreting adenoma. After surgery and lanreotide treatment failures, we noted a complete response (TSH < 0.5) with cabergoline treatment (3 mg/week). Conclusion. The unusual association of thyroid adenocarcinoma and TSHoma enriches the hypothesis of a potential link between thyrotropic hypersecretion and thyroid carcinogenesis. Our case also illustrates the difficulty of monitoring thyroid carcinoma in nonremission of a TSHoma.
Possible Iodine-Induced Thyrotoxicosis in a Previously Healthy Adolescent following Administration of Iodinated Contrast Media
Introduction. Jod-Basedow Syndrome refers to a paradoxical phenomenon in which large loads of iodine can cause hyperthyroidism. It is most commonly seen in populations already at risk for thyroid disease or those with underlying kidney disease. Case Presentation. We present a case of an acutely ill 17-year-old boy with symptomatic hyperthyroidism following an iodinated contrast CT scan to rule out appendicitis. Discussion/Conclusion. This case underscores the importance of recognizing this phenomenon even in the pediatric population and in those with no preexisting history of thyroid disease. Course complications including bronchospasm, hypertension, transaminitis, and bilateral palmar desquamating rash are rare and highlight the complexities involved in the disease state and in managing side effect profiles of treatment.
Two Cases of Armour Thyroid Interference in Thyroglobulin Monitoring for Thyroid Cancer
Thyroglobulin (Tg) monitoring is the biochemical standard for surveillance of recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Several assays are available to quantify Tg levels: immunometric assay (IMA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the newer liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It is well known that a number of entities can interfere with the accuracy of testing, and at this point in time, no one assay perfectly balances high sensitivity with low risk of interference. In this case study, we present two cases in which treatment with desiccated thyroid extract (Armour thyroid) led to a sudden elevation in Tg, which resolved when Armour thyroid was discontinued. This elevation occurred when Tg was measured with both IMA and LC-MS, which suggests direct interference from porcine Tg rather than heterophilic or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) interference. We suggest that patients with a history of DTC not be treated with desiccated thyroid extracts consistent with guidelines. Furthermore, more advances need to be made in the area of Tg testing to improve specificity and avoid detection of nonhuman Tg and other similar proteins.
Recurrent Macroprolactinoma with Malignant Conversion to Carcinoma with Spinal Metastasis
In contrast to pituitary adenomas, pituitary carcinomas represent a rare malignant neoplasm with a remarkable high mortality. Pituitary carcinomas can arise from any pituitary tumor cell line and are determined to be carcinomas when there is distant metastasis or central nervous system dissemination. In this case vignette, we describe a rare case of malignant prolactinoma with intraspinal metastasis, and we also provide a review of relevant literature and treatment.
Asymptomatic COVID-19 as a Risk Factor of Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Mucormycosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Mucormycosis is a lethal and life-threatening fungal infection. Several cases describing the association of COVID-19 and mucormycosis have been reported. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 who presented by diabetic ketoacidosis, rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and COVID-19. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and debridement of necrotic tissue of the rhino-orbital area and paranasal sinuses. Unfortunately, she passed away a few days after orbital surgery. We also conducted a review of the literature and reported 3 other similar cases that suffered from mucormycosis in association with COVID-19 and diabetic ketoacidosis and discussed the importance of this association.