Dapagliflozin-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Review of LiteratureRead the full article
Case Reports in Endocrinology publishes case reports and case series related to the endocrine system and its associated diseases.
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Thyroid Eye Disease due to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome as a Consequence of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Setting of AIDS
We describe a case of worsening Graves’ orbitopathy due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a 38-year-old HIV-infected male after beginning ART (antiretroviral therapy). Two years after initiation of ART, the patient developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thyroid eye disease (TED) or Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Thyroid iodine uptake scan was consistent with Graves’ disease. The CT scan of the orbits revealed minimal right-sided proptosis, consistent with GO. He was treated with methimazole and a short course of high-dose prednisone for GO. Thyroid function tests normalized, and eye symptoms eventually stabilized. This case demonstrates the importance of awareness and early recognition of IRIS in its many forms, as it has significant therapeutic implications.
An Adolescent Female with Bipolar Disorder Presenting with Lithium-Induced Hyperthyroidism
Lithium therapy has been associated with several endocrine disorders including thyroid dysfunction, diabetes insipidus, and hyperparathyroidism. While its suppressive effect on thyroid function is well known, it is very rare to observe lithium-induced hyperthyroidism especially in the pediatric population. Here, we describe a case of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism in an adolescent female with bipolar disorder. The patient is a 17-year-old female who was treated with lithium for bipolar disorder and presented with symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. Since thyroid autoantibodies were negative, thyroid dysfunction was attributed to lithium toxicity. Indeed, her clinical and biochemical hyperthyroid state resolved after stopping lithium therapy. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism can occur in the pediatric population. We propose close monitoring of thyroid hormone levels in children on lithium therapy.
Schwannoma Misdiagnosed as Adrenal Adenoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Schwannoma is a benign neurogenic tumor originating from the neural sheath of Schwann cells. It is an extremely rare cause of adrenal adenoma which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We report the case of a right adrenal schwannoma discovered incidentally in a 62-year-old woman during evaluation of right flank pain. The biochemical and hormonal evaluations were unremarkable. Radiological examination revealed a 4.8 cm lesion keeping with right adrenal adenoma. Surgical intervention was done due to the large size of the tumor, and laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma, which was further confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is extremely rare and can be misdiagnosed as nonsecreting adrenal adenoma. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice which is associated with favorable outcome and also helps in clarifying its histopathological nature.
Current Approach of Functioning Head and Neck Paragangliomas: Case Report of a Young Patient with Multiple Asynchronous Tumors
Introduction. Pheochromocytomas (Pheo) and paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and from the extra-adrenal autonomic paraganglia, respectively. Only 1–3% of head and neck PGL (HNPGL) show elevated catecholamines, and at least 30% of Pheo and PGL (PCPG) are associated with genetic syndromes caused by germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. Clinical Case. A 33-year-old man with a past medical history of resection of an abdominal PGL at the age of eleven underwent a CT scan after a mild traumatic brain injury revealing an incidental brain tumor. The diagnosis of a functioning PGL was made, and further testing was undertaken with a PET-CT with 68Ga-DOTATATE, SPECT-CT 131-MIBG, and genetic testing. Discussion and Conclusion. The usual clinical presentation of functioning PCPG includes paroxistic hypertension, headache, and diaphoresis, sometimes with a suggestive family history in 30–40% of cases. Only 20% of PGL are located in head and neck, of which only 1–3% will show elevated catecholamines. Metastatic disease is present in up to 50% of cases, usually associated with a hereditary germline mutation. However, different phenotypes can be observed depending on such germline mutations. Genetic testing is important in patients with PCPG since 31% will present a germline mutation. In this particular patient, an SDHB gene mutation was revealed, which can drastically influence the follow-up plan and the genetic counsel offered. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory for every patient presenting with PCPG.
Malignant Insulinoma with Multiple Liver Metastases and Hypercalcitoninemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Presenting as Recurrent Episodes of Diaphoresis due to Severe Hypoglycemia
Insulinoma is an insulin-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor that can be malignant in about 10% of cases. Locoregional invasion, lymph node metastases, or remote metastases are the main criteria of malignant insulinoma. Its incidence in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) is exceptionally rare. In this report, we describe a 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 DM who presented with recurrent episodes of diaphoresis due to severe hypoglycemia despite the withdrawal of insulin therapy, hypercalcitoninemia, and biochemical and radiological findings suggestive of metastatic malignant insulinoma. Unfortunately, after few days of diazoxide treatment, edema, hypotension, oliguria, and water retention were observed, patient’s clinical status deteriorated rapidly, and he died in our department from acute renal failure.
Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets Diagnostics and Treatment Challenges at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania
Introduction. Rickets is softening of bones caused by defective mineralization of the cartilage in the epiphyseal growth plate, causing widening of the ends of long bones, growth retardation, and skeletal deformities in children. It can be classified into calciopenic and phosphopenic, each type with various subclasses. Case Presentations. We presented 2 cases, first of a 1 year and 4-month-old male, with a history of recurrent episodes of cough for 8 months and bowing of the legs 6 months prior to admission. Clinical and laboratory investigation was suggestive of vitamin D-dependent rickets, and he started vitamin D treatment with minimal response. The second case is of a 4 years and 7-month-old male who presented with developmental delay, poor weight gain, and recurrent chest infection and worsening of bone pain since 9 months of age. Laboratory investigation was suggestive of phosphopenic rickets, and he was started on treatment at 9 months of age with little improvement and at 4 years, he sustained multiple fractures and succumbed to severe respiratory tract infection and died at 4 years and 7 months of age. Conclusion. Rickets pose a diagnostic and treatment challenge in resource-limited countries, and clinical judgment and early initiation of treatment are important.