Case Reports in Endocrinology / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Thymic Carcinoma: Evolving Mechanisms of Hypercalcemia and Targeted Therapies

Table 1

Respective cancers associated with mechanisms of hypercalcemia of malignancy [4, 930].

Hematologic malignancySolid organ malignancy

Calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia(i) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(ii) Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(iii) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
(i) Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
(ii) Glioblastoma multiforme
(iii) Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of tongue
(iv) Non-small cell lung carcinoma
(v) Metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary
(vi) Ovarian dysgerminoma
(vii) Renal cell carcinoma
(viii) Seminoma

PTHrP-related hypercalcemia(i) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(ii) Chronic myelogenous leukemia
(iii) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
(iv) Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(v) Multiple myeloma
(vi) Plasma cell leukemia
(vii) Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
(i) Squamous cell carcinom(ii) Adenocarcinom(iii) Benign congenital mesoblastic nephroma
(iv) Bladder cancer
(v) Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
(vi) Melanoma
(vii) Merkel cell carcinoma
(viii) Myxoid sarcoma
(ix) Neuroendocrine tumor
(x) Seminoma
(xi) Uterine leiomyoma

Local osteolysis(i) Acute lymphocytic leukemia
(ii) Multiple myeloma
(iii) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(i) Breast cancer
(ii) Lung cancer

Ectopic PTH secretion(i) Acute myelogenous leukemia(i) Gastric carcinoma
(ii) Lung cancer
 (a) Small cell
 (b) Squamous cell
(iii) Neuroendocrine cancer of pancreas
(iv) Thyroid cancer
 (a) Medullary
 (b) Papillary adenocarcinoma
(v) Ovarian carcinoma
(vi) Thymoma
(vii) Rhabdomyosarcoma

Cytokine-induced hypercalcemia(i) Acute lymphocytic leukemia(i) Squamous cell carcinoma of hand
(ii) Multiple myeloma
(iii) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
 (a) Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
 (b) Follicular lymphoma
 (c) Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

esophagus, head and neck cancer, lung, manubrium, parotid, penis, skin, scrotum, and vulva [9].
cholangiocarcinoma, colon, duodenum, endometrium, lung, ovary, pancreas, renal cell, and stomach [9].

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