Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 4050458, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4050458
Case Report

Coexistence of Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Graves’ Disease, a Rare Combination of Endocrine Disorders: Is It beyond a Coincidence—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Department of Endocrinology, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila, Sri Lanka

Correspondence should be addressed to S. S. C. Gunatilake; moc.liamg@ekalitanugilanos

Received 18 June 2017; Revised 10 September 2017; Accepted 8 October 2017; Published 30 October 2017

Academic Editor: Toshihiro Kita

Copyright © 2017 S. S. C. Gunatilake and U. Bulugahapitiya. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Funder, R. M. Carey, F. Mantero et al., “The management of primary aldosteronism: case detection, diagnosis, and treatment: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 1889–1916, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. V. M. Montori, G. L. Schwartz, A. B. Chapman, E. Boerwinkle, and S. T. Turner, “Validity of the aldosterone-renin ratio used to screen for primary aldosteronism,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 877–882, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Yoshimoto and Y. Hirata, “Aldosterone as a cardiovascular risk hormone,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 359–370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Mulatero, S. Monticone, C. Bertello et al., “Evaluation of primary aldosteronism,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 188–193, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. A. Herrada, F. J. Contreras, N. P. Marini et al., “Aldosterone promotes autoimmune damage by enhancing Th17-mediated immunity,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 191–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Yeung, S. J. Graves Disease. (2016, July 16). Retrieved December 13, 2016, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/120619-overview.
  7. M. P. J. Vanderpump, “The epidemiology of thyroid disease,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 39–51, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Hannemann, M. Bidlingmaier, N. Friedrich et al., “Screening for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive subjects: Results from two German epidemiological studies,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. P. Rossi, G. Bernini, C. Caliumi et al., “A prospective study of the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in 1,125 hypertensive patients,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 2293–2300, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Milliez, X. Girerd, P.-F. Plouin, J. Blacher, M. E. Safar, and J.-J. Mourad, “Evidence for an increased rate of cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1243–1248, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. Z. Jaffe and M. E. Mendelsohn, “Angiotensin II and aldosterone regulate gene transcription via functional mineralocortocoid receptors in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells,” Circulation Research, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 643–650, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Leopold, A. Dam, B. A. Maron et al., “Aldosterone impairs vascular reactivity by decreasing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. A. Herrada, C. Campino, C. A. Amador, L. F. Michea, C. E. Fardella, and A. M. Kalergis, “Aldosterone as a modulator of immunity: implications in the organ damage,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1684–1692, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Molina-Garrido, R. Enríquez, A. Mora-Rufete, A. E. Sirvent, and C. Guillen-Ponce, “Primary hyperaldosteronism associated with vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune hypothyroidism,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 333, no. 3, pp. 178–180, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. S. Suh, H.-O. Kim, Y.-H. Cheon, W. Jo, J. Hong, and S.-I. Lee, “Ankylosing spondylitis associated with primary aldosteronism in a middle-aged woman,” Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 374–377, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Bendtzen, P. R. Hansen, K. Rieneck et al., “Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma and has potential in the treatment of arthritis,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 151–158, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. A. Williams, P. Mulatero, M. Bidlingmaier, F. Beuschlein, and M. Reincke, “Genetic and Potential Autoimmune Triggers of Primary Aldosteronism,” Hypertension, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 248–253, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. C. Kem, H. Li, C. Velarde-Miranda et al., “Autoimmune mechanisms activating the angiotensin AT1 receptor in 'primary' aldosteronism,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1790–1797, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Rossitto, G. Regolisti, E. Rossi et al., “Elevation of angiotensin-II type-1-receptor autoantibodies titer in primary aldosteronism as a result of aldosterone-producing adenoma,” Hypertension, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 526–533, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Li, X. Yu, M. V. Cicala et al., “Prevalence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-activating autoantibodies in primary aldosteronism,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. X. Sun, Y. Sun, W.-C. Li et al., “Association of thyroid-stimulating hormone and cardiovascular risk factors,” Internal Medicine, vol. 54, no. 20, pp. 2537–2544, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Ertek and A. F. Cicero, “Hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular complications: a narrative review on the basis of pathophysiology,” Archives of Medical Science, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 944–952, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Armanini, D. Nacamulli, C. Scaroni et al., “High Prevalence of Thyroid Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Primary Aldosteronism,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 155–159, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Turchi, V. Ronconi, V. Di Tizio, M. Boscaro, and G. Giacchetti, “Blood pressure, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid disease prevalence in primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1274–1279, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Santori, C. Di Veroli, F. Di Lazzaro et al., “High prevalence of thyroid disfunction in primary hyperaldosteronism,” Recenti Progressi in Medicina, vol. 96, no. 7-8, pp. 352–356, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Tanaka, M. Izeki, Y. Miyazaki et al., “Combined primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome due to a single adrenocortical adenoma complicated by Hashimoto's thyroiditis,” Internal Medicine, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 967–971, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Krysiak and B. Okopien, “Coexistence of primary aldosteronism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis,” Rheumatology International, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 2561–2563, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Sabbadin, C. Mian, D. Nacamulli et al., “Association of primary aldosteronism with chronic thyroiditis,” in Proceedings of the Endocrine Society’s 95th Annual Meeting and Expo, vol. 55 of Presentation number SUN 446, pp. 303–306, San Francisco, Calif, USA, June, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Kijima and T. Sasaoka, “Hypokalemic paralysis in a case with hyperthyroidism and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism,” Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1583–1590, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. A. Iacovlev, S. B. Shustov, and K. IuSh, “A case of Conn’s syndrome combined with diffuse toxic goiter,” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk), vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 38-39, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Bru, P. Dardenne, L. Douste-Blazy, P. Pinel, J. Planques, and J. R. Saint-Marc, “Hyperaldosteronemia and associated hyperthyroidism,” Ann Endocrinol (Paris), vol. 24, pp. 84–92, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  32. V. Larouche, L. Snell, and D. V. Morris, “Iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves’ disease, with a concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism,” Endocrinology, Diabetes &Metabolism Case Reports, vol. 2015, Article ID 150087, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  33. I. Anaforoğlu, A. Şimşek, and E. Algün, “Conn’s syndrome, subclinical cushing’s syndrome and thyrotoxicosis presenting as hypokalemic periodic paralysis: a case report,” Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, p. 13, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  34. N. Yokota, T. Uchida, A. Sasaki et al., “Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis complicated with primary aldosteronism.,” Japanese Journal of Medicine , vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 219–223, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C.-C. Kuo, W.-S. Yang, V.-C. Wu, C.-W. Tsai, W. J. Wang, and K.-D. Wu, “Hypokalemic paralysis: The interplay between primary aldosteronism and hyperthyroidism,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 738-739, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. V. Rybina and E. S. Natarov Rom-Bugoslavskaia, “Regulation of aldosterone secretion in patients with thyrotoxicosis. I. role of the renin-angiotensin system and corticotropin in the development of secondary hyperaldosteronism in patients with thyrotoxicosis,” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk), vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 24–30, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Koev, “State of the renin-angiotensin system in thyrotoxicosis,” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk), vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 16–21, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  38. T. P. Bezverkhaia, “Hyperaldosteronism in thyrotoxicosis,” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk), vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 26–29, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  39. B. J. Asmah, W. M. Wan Nazaimoon, K. Norazmi, T. T. Tan, and B. A. K. Khalid, “Plasma Renin and Aldosterone in Thyroid Diseases,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 580–583, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Vargas, I. Rodríguez-Gómez, P. Vargas-Tendero, E. Jimenez, and M. Montiel, “The renin-angiotensin system in thyroid disorders and its role in cardiovascular and renal manifestations,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. W. Park, Y. S. Shin, S. J. Ahn et al., “Thyroxine treatment induces upregulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system due to decreasing effective plasma volume in patients with primary myxoedema,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1799–1806, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus