Case Reports in Endocrinology / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Case Report

Severe Symptomatic Hypocalcemia from HIV Related Hypoparathyroidism

Table 2

Pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of hypocalcemia.

Hypocalcemia associated withDisorders

Low PTHAbnormal PTH synthesis; Abnormal parathyroid gland development; Post-surgical hypoparathyroidism; Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1; 
Activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor; Infiltration of parathyroid gland; Radiation-induced hypoparathyroidism; HIV infection; Hungry bone syndrome

High PTHVitamin D deficiency or resistance; PTH resistance 
(pseudohypoparathyroidism); Loss of calcium in circulation (tumor lysis syndrome, acute pancreatitis, sepsis, osteoblastic metastases, hyperphosphatemia); Renal disease

DrugsInhibitors of bone resorption (bisphosphonates, calcitonin, denosumab); Cinacalcet; Calcium chelators (EDTA, citrate, phosphate); Foscarnet; Phenytoin; Fluoride poisoning

Disorders of magnesium metabolismHypomagnesemia causing functional hypoparathyroidism

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.