Become an Academic Editor
Case Reports in Genetics is currently accepting applications for new Academic Editors to join the editorial board.Find out how to apply
Case Reports in Genetics publishes case reports and case series focusing on diseases caused by hereditary predisposition or genetic variation in individuals and families.
Case Reports in Genetics maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Constitutional Chromothripsis on Chromosome 2: A Rare Case with Severe Presentation
Chromothripsis is characterized by shattering and subsequent reassembly of chromosomes by DNA repair processes, which can give rise to a variety of congenital abnormalities and cancer. Constitutional chromothripsis is a rare occurrence, reported in children presenting with a wide range of birth defects. We present a case of a female child born with multiple major congenital abnormalities including severe microcephaly, ocular dysgenesis, heart defect, and imperforate anus. Chromosomal microarray and mate pair sequencing identified a complex chromosomal rearrangement involving the terminal end of the long arm of chromosome 2, with two duplications (located at 2p25.3-p25.1 and 2q35-q37.2 regions) and two deletions (located at 2q37.2-q37.3 and 2q37.3 regions) along with structural changes including inverted segments. A review of the literature for complex rearrangements on chromosome 2 revealed overlapping features; however, our patient had a significantly more severe phenotype which resulted in early death at the age of 2 years. Breakpoints analysis did not reveal the involvement of any candidate genes. We concluded that the complexity of the genomic rearrangement and the combined dosage/structural effect of these copy number variants are likely explanations for the severe presentation in our patient.
Genital Abnormalities and Growth Retardation as Early Signs of Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Ataxia Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the DNAJC19 gene. The disease has been described in detail in the Canadian Hutterite population, but a few sporadic cases with de novo mutations have been published worldwide. We describe a homozygous pathogenic variant in the DNAJC19 gene, diagnosed in Northern Greece, presenting with genital anomalies, growth failure, cardiomyopathy, and ataxia, but without increased urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid and additional presence of vitamin D disorders, hypercalciuria, and osteopenia. This case not only expands the clinical characteristics of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type V (MGCA5) but also highlights the power of genetic analysis for detecting a diagnosis when the metabolic screen is negative.
A Novel Heterozygous De Novo MORC2 Missense Variant Causes an Early Onset and Severe Neurodevelopmental Disorder
Microrchidia CW-type zinc finger protein 2 (MORC2) is an ATPase-containing nuclear protein which regulates transcription through chromatin remodelling and epigenetic silencing. MORC2 may have a role in the development of neurones, and dominant variants in this gene have recently been linked with disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2Z disease, spinal muscular atrophy and, more recently, a neurodevelopmental syndrome consisting of developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy (DIGFAN), presenting with hypotonia, microcephaly, brain atrophy, intellectual disability, hearing loss, faltering growth, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Notably, variants in MORC2 have shown clinical features overlapping with those of Cockayne and Leigh syndromes. Here, we report a case of MORC2-related DIGFAN syndrome in a female infant caused by a novel heterozygous de novo variant. The condition was early onset and severe, further expanding the range of genotypes associated with this disorder. Clinical features included unilateral hearing loss, developmental delay and regression within the first year of life, microcephaly, severe feeding difficulties, and faltering growth, resulting in death at 13 months of age.
A Novel SPAST Variant Associated with Isolated Spastic Paraplegia
Genetic variants in SPAST are the most common cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), entitled spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4). Inheritance is autosomal dominant, and age of onset can vary from childhood to adulthood. Pathogenic SPAST variants are often observed in isolated cases, likely due to reduced penetrance and clinical variability. We report an isolated case of SPG4 associated with a novel likely pathogenic variant in SPAST. A 38-year-old woman presented with an eight-year history of progressive difficulty walking. Neurological examination revealed spastic paraparesis in the absence of upper motor neuron dysfunction, sensory deficits, or intellectual disability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord was normal. No family members had similar complaints. Genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous sequence variant in SPAST, c.1751A > G p.(Asp584Gly) (NM_014946.4). The affected amino acid is highly conserved among orthologue and paralogue species. Four other nucleotide substitutions predicted to affect the same amino acid, a “hot spot”, have been reported previously in adult-onset HSP. This report describes a novel SPAST variant in a female with HSP without a known family history of the disorder.
A Diagnosis of Maternal 22q Duplication and Mosaic Deletion following Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening
Concurrent microduplication and microdeletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region are a rarely reported phenomenon. We describe a case of germline 22q11.21 microduplication syndrome with concurrent mosaic 22q11.2 deletion in a pregnant patient, identified by chromosomal microarray and FISH after noninvasive prenatal genetic screening (cfDNA) results discordant with family history. The patient was referred to maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) at 14 weeks’ gestation secondary to an SNP-based cfDNA result of a suspected maternal 22q11.2 deletion and a fetal risk of 1 in 2 for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The patient reported a similar cfDNA result in a previous pregnancy; however postnatal chromosomal microarray on that child identified an atypical 22q11.21 microduplication. We report the maternal chromosomal microarray findings of a germline 726 kb 22q11.21 duplication and a mosaic 1.33 Mb 22q11.2 deletion and highlight the copy number variant data generated by cfDNA in this unique case. This family adds to the limited literature of concurrent 22q11.2 microduplication and microdeletion carriers.
A Rare 46,X,t(Y;10)(q12;p14) Balanced Translocation in Non-Obstructive Azoospermic Patient with Elevated FSH and LH Levels
Structural chromosomal aberrations like translocations have been shown to cause spermatogenic failure. We report a rare 46,X,t(Y;10)(q12;p14) balanced translocation in an otherwise healthy non-obstructive azoospermic male with high follicle-stimulating hormone (26.65 IU/L) and high luteinizing hormone (13.58 IU/L). The patient was referred to us after clinical, hormonal, and histopathological investigations to identify chromosomal abnormalities by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Analysis of the banding pattern by karyotyping followed by FISH confirmed reciprocal translocation and identified the breakpoints at Yq heterochromatin (Yq12) and 10p14. Further molecular tests including AZF microdeletion assay were done, and the results, which showed no mutations in the analyzed genes, were provided by the referring doctor. Thus, our study points to the importance of conventional cytogenetic techniques in the preliminary evaluation of a genetic abnormality in cases of infertility and would help the patient make an informed decision before pursuing assisted reproductive technology.