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Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine publishes case reports and case series focusing on gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
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Gastric Mucormycosis: An Infection of Fungal Invasion into the Gastric Mucosa in Immunocompromised Patients
Primary gastric mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal fungal infection due to the invasion of Mucorales into the gastric mucosa. It may result in high mortality due to increased risk of complications in immunocompromised patients. Common predisposing risk factors to develop gastric mucormycosis are prolonged uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with or without diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), solid organ or stem cell transplantation, underlying hematologic malignancy, and major trauma. Abdominal pain, hematemesis, and melena are common presenting symptoms. The diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis can be overlooked due to the rarity of the disease. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and management of the disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Radiological imaging findings are nonspecific to establish the diagnosis, and gastric biopsy is essential for histological confirmation of mucormycosis. Prompt treatment with antifungal therapy is the mainstay of treatment with surgical resection reserved in cases of extensive disease burden or clinical deterioration. We presented a case of acute gastric mucormycosis involving the body of stomach in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal disease, admitted with acute onset of abdominal pain. Complete resolution of lesion was noted with 16 weeks of medical treatment with intravenous amphotericin B and posaconazole.
Parastomal Varices with Recurrent Bleeding in the Absence of Liver Cirrhosis
Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common problem in patients with portal hypertension. One of the most common causes of GI bleeding are varices (e.g., esophageal varices). In some instances, varices can develop between an intestinal stoma and the abdominal wall vasculature, known as parastomal varices. Specifically, parastomal varices are common in patients with a preexisting stoma and concurrent chronic portal hypertension. These patients often present with recurrent bleeding and may require regular transfusions. Herein, we report on a patient with parastomal varices and portal hypertension without hepatic cirrhosis. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with surgical interventions, most clinical guidelines encourage observation and medical management of bleeding from parastomal varices. Among the nonsurgical interventions, manual compression and local maneuvers often successfully stop the bleeding. However, subsequent rebleeding from parastomal varices can remain a problem requiring additional treatment. Further research is needed to investigate appropriate medical or surgical alternatives for managing parastomal varices bleeding.
Improvising in Endoscopy: Endoscopic Removal of Sharp Foreign Bodies in the Upper GI Tract, Using a Handmade Protective Device
Introduction. Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in large-volume endoscopic departments. Several techniques and devices have been described for the safe endoscopic removal of these objects. However, these devices may not be suitable in every clinical setting or—as in our case—they may not even be available. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient, presenting with sharp foreign body ingestion. The foreign bodies were safely removed using a handmade protective hood due to lack of a commercial device. In our case, improvisation proved to be of great benefit for the patient as well as for the endoscopist. Discussion. Improvised interventions can be of special interest in the setting of insufficiently funded or equipped endoscopic departments.
Colorectal Cancer Related to Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis Infection
The majority of individuals with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) colitis are clinically asymptomatic. Symptomatic individuals may complain of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, intermittent or persistent diarrhea, nausea, or loss of appetite. In addition, skin manifestations such as recurrent urticaria can occur. If infection is not diagnosed and left untreated, it can lead to chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is well documented that chronic colitis such as inflammatory bowel disease can predispose individuals to colorectal cancer. Additionally, there is evidence of chronic parasitic infections inducing the development of cancers in other organs within the gastrointestinal tract. In this case vignette, we describe a case of chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Peruvian woman presenting with colorectal cancer.
Malabsorption Syndrome due to Intestinal Amyloidosis as Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies. Designated in the literature as “the great masquerader,” the great diversity of clinical manifestations is associated with the several paraneoplastic syndromes that potentially accompany it. Paraneoplastic amyloidosis is described in about 3–8% of cases, only exceptionally as an initial manifestation, with uncommon gastrointestinal involvement. A rare case of malabsorption by intestinal amyloidosis is presented as initial manifestation of renal cell carcinoma, emphasizing the need for early recognition of these paraneoplastic conditions.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An Uncommon Cause of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Ambulatory Adult
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen known to cause enterocolitis in children, amongst other types of infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been widely reported as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult immunocompromised hosts. We present an 81-year-old previously healthy female as the first reported case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic-associated diarrhea in an immunocompetent host in the United States.