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Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine publishes case reports and case series focusing on gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
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Ischemic Colitis after Colonoscopy with Bisacodyl Bowel Preparation: A Report of Two Cases
Background. Colonoscopy is widely used for the diagnosis and management of colorectal disease and requires adequate bowel preparation. Ischemic colitis is a form of intestinal ischemia that presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia. Risk factors include advanced age, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Both colonoscopy and bisacodyl bowel preparation have been described as rare causes of ischemic colitis with less than 35 cases collectively in the literature. Our review found that of these cases, there exists significant heterogeneity within individual patient characteristics. The majority of the cases are managed conservatively without complications or sequela. Due to the risk of ischemic colitis, the FDA has withdrawn bisacodyl bowel preparations from use in the USA. Bisacodyl bowel preparations are still used in Canada. Cases. Here, we present two cases of ischemic colitis in previously healthy women aged 57 and 69 who underwent screening colonoscopy using bisacodyl bowel preparation. Both were treated conservatively without complications. Conclusion. Thus far, there has been one documented case of ischemic colitis following colonoscopy with bisacodyl bowel preparation; here, we present two additional cases with one case occurring without the presence of known risk factors for ischemic colitis. Our literature review finds that there is limited evidence surrounding bisacodyl as a causative agent of ischemic colitis. Cases often contain confounding variables such as the presence of known risk factors for ischemic colitis. Our report aims to highlight the need for a more comprehensive analysis evaluating the safety of bowel preparations as well as increasing the clinical awareness surrounding the rare risk of colonoscopy-induced ischemic colitis.
Recalcitrant Esophageal Stricture Secondary to Mycophenolate Mofetil
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is associated with various gastrointestinal toxicities. However, limited literature studies exist reporting MMF-related gastrointestinal toxicity manifesting as esophageal strictures. We report a case of a 62-year-old male with kidney transplant on MMF, tacrolimus, and prednisone, presenting with progressive dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed severe esophageal stricturing with near food bolus impaction, requiring dilations, esophageal stent, and ultimately gastrostomy tube. Biopsies revealed nonspecific inflammation with no evidence of infectious/neoplastic process; thus, our multidisciplinary esophageal group determined that the process was secondary to MMF. This case demonstrates that, though rare, MMF can result in severe esophageal strictures causing significant morbidity.
A Rare Complication of Noncompliance Status Post-Transhiatal Esophagectomy and Esophago-Gastroanastomosis
Gastropleural fistulas are a complication of peptic ulcers in hiatal hernias, trauma, infections, surgical complications, and malignancy. Presenting symptoms may include gastric and chest pain with respiratory failure in the setting of pneumonitis, hydropneumothorax, or tension pneumothorax. We describe a 57-year-old male with a history of transhiatal esophagectomy and esophago-gastroanastomosis who presented in the setting of dyspnea and dark orogastric tube output. Upper endoscopy revealed multiple gastric ulcers with a dominant ulceration communicating with an adjacent space, and a fistulous tract was demonstrated on computed tomography chest, confirming a gastropleural fistula, a rare life-threatening condition.
Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction as the Initial Clinical Presentation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Rare and Severe Disorder
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) is a rarely recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a 36-year-old African American female, with only known past medical history of anemia, admitted for frequent vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever that had been ongoing for 5 days. Laboratory results revealed leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Imaging revealed dilated small bowel loops, abdominal ascites, as well as mild bilateral hydroureteronephrosis without obstructing calculus. Serologic testing confirmed a diagnosis of SLE. The patient was placed on immunosuppressive therapy and responded well. IPO has previously been described as a rare finding in patients with SLE, with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and lupus interstitial cystitis having been noted as common concomitant factors. One must have a high level of suspicion to recognize it as being one of the initial clinical presentations. Early recognition and appropriate management preclude unnecessary invasive procedures that do not take into account the pathophysiology of the condition and allow for appropriate management and return of peristaltic function.
Antegrade Therapy for Management of Choledocholithiasis through Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Hepaticogastrostomy in a Patient with Surgically Altered Gastrointestinal Anatomy
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HG) is a technique used to access the biliary tree in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Additionally, development of EUS-HG fistula permits intraductal therapy, thereby preventing patients from requiring surgery or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), thus decreasing morbidity. This clinical vignette describes an 83-year-old man with a history of gangrenous cholecystitis requiring cholecystectomy, partial gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy who presented to an outside hospital with abdominal pain and fever and found to have cholangitis and choledocholithiasis. He underwent two endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures at an outside hospital which were unsuccessful due to an inaccessible major papilla in the setting of the patient’s surgically altered anatomy. On arrival to Wake Forest, the patient underwent EUS-HG with successful biliary drainage and resolution of cholangitis. He returned for ERCP three months later with balloon sphincteroplasty, cholangioscopy, and electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) performed through the existing metal stent (hepaticogastrostomy), resulting in stone fragmentation and antegrade removal with balloon sweeps. Repeat cholangioscopy post-EHL and balloon sweeps showed complete duct clearance with no residual stones. The hepaticogastrostomy stent was subsequently removed, and the patient recovered without any complications.
Use of Argon Plasma Coagulation and Endoscopic Hemoclips for Postsurgical Gastrointestinal Fistula
A 72-year-old male was diagnosed with a duodenal mass and underwent extensive surgical resection. The patient’s post-op course was complicated by an anastomotic leak that was first treated conservatively; however, his condition continued to deteriorate. An upper endoscopy was performed, which showed misplacement of drain forming a fistulous track through the lumen of the bowel. We removed the drain and used argon plasma coagulation to de-epithelize the lumen and closed the fistula with hemostasis clips. The patient’s clinical status improved significantly. Our case emphasizes the success of endoscopic techniques as an alternative option in the management of postsurgical anastomotic leaks and fistulas in the right clinical setting and patient population.