Case Report

Parastomal Varices with Recurrent Bleeding in the Absence of Liver Cirrhosis

Table 1

Summary of parastomal varices risk factors, presentation, and treatment [4ā€“6].

Patient risk factorsSurgical risk factorsAppearanceClinical presentationTreatment

(i) Obesity
(ii) Malnutrition
(iii) Advanced age
(iv) Smoking
(v) Collagen abnormalities
(vi) Corticosteroid use
(vii) Postoperative wound sepsis
(viii) Ascites
(ix) Abdominal distention
(x) Chronic constipation
(xi) Obstructive uropathy
(xii) Chronic obstructive lung disease
(i) Inappropriate stoma site selection
(ii) Oversized fascial trephine
(iii) Excessive splitting and stretching of abdominal rectus muscle
(iv) Epigastric nerve denervation
(v) Emergency stoma creation
Circumferential blue or purple subcutaneous rings extending from the mucocutaneous junction of the subcutaneous stomal skin(i) Peristomal esthetic complaints
(ii) Discomfort
(iii) Pain
(iv) Bowel obstruction
(v) Incarceration
(i) Prophylactic synthetic mesh placement
(ii) N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue injection
(iii) Single-digit compression
(iv) Sodium tetradecyl sulfate
(v) Polidocanol
(vi) 5% phenol
(vii) Nonselective beta-blockers
(viii) Liver transplant
(ix) Embolization
(x) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt