The Development of Primary Effusion Lymphoma-Like Lymphoma in a Patient with Preexisting Essential ThrombocythemiaRead the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Recurrence of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccine Administered Shortly after COVID-19
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a potentially life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy requiring emergent diagnosis and timely treatment. It is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia with the development of microthrombi caused by inherited or acquired deficiency of the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 and resulting end-organ damage. Most of the cases are the result of acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, for which the exact etiology is unknown but reported to be related to various autoimmune disorders, infections, and medications. Our case report features of a patient with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, who developed a recurrence of TTP 5 days after his first dose of the mRNA Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (mRNA-1273 vaccine) in the setting of recent COVID-19. The close temporal association between vaccine administration, recent COVID-19, and relapse of remitted TTP raises concern for an enhanced immune reaction to COVID-19 vaccine in the setting of recent COVID-19 and underlying autoimmune disease. The association is not absolute, but given the novelty of COVID-19 and the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and the relapse timing, it leads us to pose this hypothesis. Vaccine distribution to a larger and more diverse population will allow for an increased rate of adverse event reporting. This case report exemplifies potential safety issues that may be encountered with new vaccine administration in patients with recent COVID-19 and underlying autoimmune disease. There are no specific recommendations for COVID-19 vaccine administration in such patients.
Intermediate between Idiopathic Hypereosinophilia and Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia: A Report of Two Hypereosinophilic Cases with Possible Novel Molecular Mutations
To distinguish a reactive eosinophilia from its malignant counterpart is challenging. Establishing clonality of the eosinophils is crucial and considered the determining factor for establishing a diagnosis. Cases of hypereosinophilia without clear reactive etiologies, no evidence of end-organ damage, normal cytogenetics, and no molecular mutations are termed as “Idiopathic Hypereosinophilia (IHE).” For cases which lie between the spectrum of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and IHE, identification of underlying molecular abnormalities might be helpful in better understanding the disease process and prognosis. Here, we report two cases of hypereosinophilia in which five possible novel molecular mutations were identified by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. They were FBXW7, KM2A, TCF3, ERBB4, and MET. With multiple genetic mutations, these cases could be classified as chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Both these young patients responded well to steroid therapy. While targeted NGS is a useful tool in identifying new molecular mutation associated with hypereosinophilia, our cases raise the question of further investigating this entity and if there is a possibility of an intermediate category lying between the spectrum of CEL and IHE. Defining hypereosinophilia with clonal molecular abnormality as a malignant process may need to be revisited. Even though attempts are being made to identify mutations in IHE, it might be more significant clinically to differentiate them based on response to steroid therapy and prognosis.
Nivolumab Effective for Gastric and Lung Cancers but Not for Multiple Myeloma in a Multiple Primary Cancer Patient
The case of a 76-year-old man with multiple primary cancers that were treated with nivolumab is presented. Six years earlier, he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) and was treated with several chemotherapies. He was also diagnosed with gastric cancer with liver metastasis and primary lung cancer by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography (CT). Nivolumab treatment was given as third-line therapy, and it was effective for gastric and lung cancers. But MM worsened, and the patient died. There is no standard treatment for multiple primary cancers, and the development of effective treatments for multiple primary cancers is important.
Hemoadsorption Treatment with CytoSorb® in Probable Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Role as Adjunctive Therapy?
Acute hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease, with an annual incidence of 1 : 800,000 people. The disease is characterized by a cytokine storm, with concomitant macrophage and natural killer (NK) cell activation; death can occur from multiple organ failure or complications such as bleeding diathesis. Therefore, HLH treatment remains a challenging one. We hereby present a case of a 76-year-old man with severe HLH in whom hemoadsorption was successfully applied. Due to the failure of the immunomodulatory therapy , continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration therapy with the CytoSorb® adsorber was successfully applied for 48 hours. Upon therapy discontinuation, the biological and clinical condition reverted, unfortunately evolving towards the patient’s death.
Multiple Myeloma with Foamy Mott Cells
Intracytoplasmic assorted vacuoles containing immunoglobulin collections are occasionally seen in multiple myeloma. When abundant, they impart a foamy appearance to the tumor cells, which is a potential source for diagnostic pitfalls. Herein, we report the case of a patient who presented with skeletal pain and CT confirmed lytic lesions. A bone marrow biopsy revealed multiple myeloma with unusual foamy Mott cells. The patient was subsequently treated with four cycles of cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone induction therapy, followed by 3 cycles of lenalidomide with dexamethasone. A biopsy performed following initial biological and immunomodulatory drugs revealed different morphological and clonal characteristics. These features were modified again, five years later, and again, after two years of close monitoring. Hematopathologists should be aware of this morphologic variant of myeloma as well as for the capacity of clonal characteristics, such as light chain monotype, to fluctuate subsequent to treatment.
Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Presenting as Hemolytic Anemia due to Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient which plays an important role in neurological function, hematopoiesis, and DNA synthesis. Low levels usually stem from either poor intake or a malabsorptive process. Presently, the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is food-bound cobalamin malabsorption, which occurs when there is impaired release of vitamin B12 from ingested food due to an outstanding factor preventing the release of the nutrient from its transport protein. Such causes include achlorhydria, gastritis, gastrectomy, or the use of PPIs or antacids. A rarer cause is autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis, resulting in pernicious anemia. In this disease process, there is destruction of parietal cells and thus a reduction in intrinsic factor, which is essential to the absorption of vitamin B12. Deficiency will result in a variety of abnormalities including but not limited to pancytopenia, paresthesias, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is hemolytic anemia, which occurs due to intramedullary and extramedullary dysfunction. This case describes a 46-year-old male with no past medical history who presented with chest pain, fatigue, and progressive weakness, found to have hemolytic anemia, ultimately attributed to vitamin B12 deficiency. Antiparietal cell antibodies and intrinsic factor antibodies (IFA) were both negative. Still, the patient underwent an endoscopy with biopsies of the stomach; pathology was consistent with chronic metaplastic atrophic gastritis. The patient improved with intramuscular vitamin B12 supplementation. This case highlights both a rare cause and presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis should have antiparietal cell or intrinsic factor antibodies. Still, seronegative patients have been reported, like this patient. Additionally, hemolytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon. The presentation will usually mirror that of a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including hemolytic anemia with schistocytes on peripheral blood smear and thrombocytopenia, as it did in this patient. This clinical entity is described as pseudothrombotic microangiopathy and is crucial to identify in order to prevent the initiation of invasive treatment strategies such as plasmapheresis.