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Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Efficacy of Inotuzumab Ozogamicin plus Ponatinib Followed by Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Relapsed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL) is an aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Despite the incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the therapeutic strategies, patients who relapse after chemotherapy plus TKI have poor overall survival (OS) and less chance to proceed to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) which remains the only curative approach. Therefore, new drugs, such as antibody-targeted therapies alone or in combination with TKIs, offer new therapeutic options for those patients. However, the combination of inotuzumab plus ponatinib has limited application. We present a case of a patient affected by Ph + ALL with T315I mutation successfully treated after early relapse with inotuzumab plus ponatinib, followed by allogeneic HSCT and ponatinib maintenance.
Myocarditis Concurrent with Sweet Syndrome: A Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in American adults and portends a poor prognosis if untreated. Commonly, AML presents with symptoms related to concurrent leukopenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia; however, due to its ability to affect many organ systems in the body, AML can have a highly varied clinical presentation. One such presentation is myocarditis, which is a rarely reported manifestation of AML. Myocarditis can have a varied clinical picture and often requires exclusion of other causes of cardiac dysfunction. Sweet syndrome, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is another presentation of AML; however, it is more commonly associated with AML than cardiac involvement. Sweet syndrome can occur in patients with an already established malignancy or can occur de novo in a patient with previously undiagnosed cancer and, interestingly, can also be accompanied by extracutaneous manifestations, one of which is myocarditis. Herein, we report a case of a 45-year-old male with a history of obesity and depression who presented with chest pain, a tender and diffuse rash, and pancytopenia. Heart catheterization performed at outside institution was negative for coronary artery disease. Cardiac MRI images were compatible with myocarditis. Dermal biopsy of the rash was consistent with sweet syndrome. Peripheral blood flow cytometry and bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of AML. He was treated with an induction chemotherapy regimen of 7 days of cytarabine and 3 days of daunorubicin with resolution of his chest pain and skin lesions. The patient had persistent leukemia cells on day 14 postinduction bone marrow biopsy and was treated with high-dose cytarabine reinduction treatment. Bone marrow biopsy with count recovery after reinduction therapy revealed complete response (CR).
The Combination of Interferon-Alpha and Ponatinib Enables Faster and Deeper Molecular Responses in Patient with De Novo Blast Crisis of CML: Interferon-Alpha May Return as a CML Treatment
In the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, its effectiveness in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has been improved, ensuring the same prognosis as that of healthy people of the same age. However, there are some patients with de novo blast crisis that undergoes acute conversion from the time of diagnosis and does not respond to TKI treatment, especially in the older patients. Here, we present a case of an older patient with de novo lymphoid crisis who was first treated with a combination of TKI and chemotherapy, but it was difficult to maintain a durable deep molecular response (DMR). After he achieved major molecular response (MMR) or less, it was possible to suppress IS% to DMR by performing a combined treatment with interferon-α (IFN-α) and ponatinib. It is considered that DMR can be maintained by the combination of the two-way action of IFN-α, that is, the transfer of dormant CML stem cells to the cellcycle and the activation of a specific immune response to CML cells. This clinical result suggests the possibility of the re-emergence of IFN-α, which has been used a therapeutic drug in the past.
Hypercalcemia in Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma with an Elevated Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Associated with Early Richter Transformation
Hypercalcemia in malignancy is associated with multiple mechanisms and occurs in up to 20–30% of cancer patients. We report a case of small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL) associated with hypercalcemia and an elevation in parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) in the setting of a Richter transformation. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on lymph node biopsy specimens obtained before and after transformation showed an 8-fold increase in PTHrP mRNA levels and about 2-fold decrease in the levels of its cognate receptor PTHR1. The findings of this case suggest that parathyroid hormone-related peptide might be useful in monitoring a specific group of patients with SLL/CLL who develop hypercalcemia during the course of their disease and could suggest an autocrine-like mechanism involving PTHrP in Richter transformation.
Successful Treatment of Myeloid Sarcoma in an Elderly Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Reduced-Dose Azacitidine
Myeloid sarcoma (MS), which involves extramedullary lesions, is classified as a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). At present, no standard treatments for MS have been established. The patient was an 89-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome-excess blast-2 (MDS-EB-2) with a 2-year history of intermittent treatment with azacitidine (AZA) during a 4-year history of MDS. He developed painful cutaneous tumors 8 months after the second discontinuation of AZA. They were refractory for antibiotics and topical tacrolimus hydrate. A tumor biopsy was performed, and the histological findings of the tumor lesion showed a proliferation of tumor cells that were positive for myeloperoxidase and CD68 and negative for CD4 and CD123. The patient was diagnosed with MDS-associated MS. MDS-EB-2 quickly progressed to AML with the appearance of peripheral blood blasts and 25% bone marrow blasts. Monotherapy with reduced-dose AZA (37.5 mg/m2 for 7 days, every 4–6 weeks) was restarted, and the MS quickly disappeared. The patient’s MS was successfully treated with 16 cycles of AZA treatment over a 22-month period. There have been 10 reported cases in which MS was successfully treated with AZA. Among the 10 cases, the patient in the present case was the oldest. Treatment with reduced-dose AZA should be considered as a therapeutic option for MS in elderly patients with MDS, especially patients who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with the t(7;7)(p15;p22) Translocation, a Novel Simple Variant of t(7;11)(p15;p15) Translocation: First Description
The t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation is a recurrent genetic abnormality associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The translocation results in a fusion between the nucleoporin 98 and homeobox genes. We describe a case of AML with t(7; 7)(p15;p22) translocation, which is a novel simple variant of the t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation. A 66-year-old woman presented with subcutaneous hemorrhage in both forearms. Laboratory test revealed hyperleukocytosis (white blood cell count: 97,800 cells/µL (blasts, 51.0%)), anemia (hemoglobin level: 7.6 g/dL), thrombocytopenia (platelet count: 6.5 × 104/μL), and hyperfibrinolysis (elevated d-dimer level: 12.4 µg/mL; fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products: 26.9 µg/mL). The patient was diagnosed with AML; the blast morphology was unclassifiable according to the French-American-British classification. Flow cytometry CD45 gating revealed that the blasts expressed CD34, CD13, CD33, and CD117. G-banding of tumor cells revealed the t(7;7)(p15;p22) translocation [20/20]. The patient underwent chemotherapy. At 48 days of admission, the patient died of multiple organ failure. The t(7;7)(p15;p22) translocation involved chromosome 7p15, indicating its association with the homeobox genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with AML with the t(7;7)(p15;p22) translocation, which is a simple novel variant of the t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation.