A Case of Successful Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Severely Underweight Patient with Aplastic AnemiaRead the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Enhancing Efficacy and Quality of Life in Patients with Herpes Zoster Infection in Hairy Cell Leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an infrequent and persistent B-cell inert lymphoid leukemia. In this study, we present the case of a 71-year-old female patient with a previous diagnosis of variant HCL who experienced a severe herpes zoster infection leading to an extensive skin eruption. The patient’s initial diagnosis of HCL occurred 7 years ago, and she underwent treatment with cladribine, interferon, COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone), benztropine tablets + clarithromycin dispersible, and ibrutinib. Immune disorders resulting from repeated prior chemotherapy and targeted therapy may potentially precipitate herpes zoster infection. Despite an initial two-week period of unresponsiveness to antivirals and nerve nutrition treatments, the introduction of topical Coptis liquid to the treatment regimen yielded significant efficacy. This case report underscores the potential of Chinese medicine as an adjunct to conventional antiviral therapy in the management of herpes zoster infection in immunocompromised patients. This treatment protocol has the potential to enhance efficacy, enhance quality of life, and serve as a more robust foundation for clinical diagnosis and improved treatments.
A + AVD for Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma Variant of Richter’s Transformation
Hodgkin lymphoma variant of Richter’s transformation (HvRT) is a rare complication for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with an overall poor prognosis. We present the first known case series of patients with HvRT treated with the combination of brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (A + AVD). In our series of 4 patients, two patients treated with A + AVD for HvRT had durable remissions of 40 and 42 months, while two patients had disease progression and ultimately died. Continued investigation into the optimal management for patients with HvRT is still needed.
Isolated Central Nervous System Involvement after Brentuximab Vedotin Treatment for HIV-Positive ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphoma poses a high mortality risk despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although intermediate- or high-grade B-cell lymphomas are common, anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are rare and seldom affect the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we present a case of HIV-associated ALCL with isolated CNS involvement that occurred following the discontinuation of ART that was administered after treatment with brentuximab vedotin (BV)—which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. At the time of CNS recurrence, the patient’s CD4 count was 9 cells/mm3. This is the first report of CNS recurrence in HIV-associated ALCL. Considering the high risk of CNS relapse, we suggest initiating CNS prophylaxis in cases of HIV-associated ALCL, particularly in patients receiving CNS-impermeable agents such as BV.
Renal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Mast Cell Leukemia with Bone Marrow Fibrosis
Systemic mastocytosis is defined by the clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells. The clinical course can range from indolent forms with normal life expectancy to advanced mast cell leukemia with dismal prognosis. An association with other diseases, including myeloproliferative neoplasia, has been described. We present a case of a 75-year patient with a history of cutaneous mastocytosis who was diagnosed with mast cell leukemia more than 9 years ago and did not receive treatment. The patient presented to our clinic with acute kidney failure because of renal extramedullary hematopoiesis. Bone marrow histopathology revealed extensive fibrosis and 50% infiltration by mast cells with a c-KIT D816V mutation. No mutations supporting primary myelofibrosis were identified. Treatment with midostaurin was started, and the patient was discharged after improvement of renal function. Here, we discuss diagnostic challenges between different forms of mast cell leukemia and overlaps with other hematological malignancies.
MPO Expression of Background Neutrophils in MPO Negative Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia, An Easy Clue to Corroborate a Challenging Diagnosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the pathogenic driver fusion transcript PML-RARA resulting from the t(15;17) translocation. Early recognition of APL with prompt ATRA induction has a decisive impact on the early death rate. The preliminary diagnosis of APL relies heavily on cytomorphology and flow cytometry. In APL with variant morphology, such as the microgranular variant, immunophenotype, especially the bright MPO positivity is the basis of diagnosis. Till date, only five cases of APL with reduced/absent MPO have been described in literature. The identification of MPO deficiency based on genetic testing would involve at the least a MPO gene scanning with NGS, followed by microarray to identify somatic uniparental disomy in heterozygotes. This testing is not only redundant given the scant clinical implications of heterozygous MPO deficiency but also time consuming. An easy way to identify background MPO deficiency confounding the immunophenotype of a myeloid neoplasm is the MPO expression in background neutrophils gated on the initial flow cytometry. A dim MPO in the background neutrophils, in the morphological setting of APL, can identify underlying MPO deficiency, clarifying the immunophenotypic ambiguity and thus establishing an unequivocal diagnosis as seen in the current case.
Epstein–Barr Virus Driven Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after a Short Course of Daratumumab Treatment for Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
In this case, we describe the potential risk of developing an infectious complication leading to a secondary malignancy after a short course of immunotherapy. We report a patient who presented with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) driven Hodgkin’s lymphoma after treatment with a short course of daratumumab along with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed multiple myeloma. Although there have been limited documented cases of daratumumab treatment leading to EBV reactivation, in patients presenting with infectious symptoms or neutropenia on a daratumumab-based regimen, testing for EBV should not be overlooked.