Spontaneous Complete Remission of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Absence of Disease-Modifying Therapy following Severe Pulmonary Involvement by Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19Read the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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A Case Study in Process Improvement to Minimize Delays from Obtaining Blood for Red Cell Exchange for a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease and Multiple Red Blood Cell Alloantibodies
The process of procuring several units of red blood cells for red cell exchange can sometimes take several hours to days, especially for patients with multiple clinically significant red cell alloantibodies. This can introduce delays, inconveniences, and even health challenges for the patient. For most planned exchanges, these delays are preventable with some foresight and process modifications that are relatively minor yet high leverage. We report a case study of process improvement whereby the apheresis nurse sends an e-mail to the blood bank when the nurse makes the patient’s next red cell exchange appointment as the signal to order blood about 6–8 weeks before the exchange.
Salvage Therapy in Early Relapse of T-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma Using Daratumumab/Nelarabine Combination: Two Consecutive Cases
Treatment of early relapses of T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is often unsuccessful. We tested an experimental regimen containing daratumumab and nelarabine in two young patients with early relapses of T lymphoblastic lymphoma and T-ALL, respectively. Both patients achieved a deep complete remission. Combining daratumumab with chemotherapy may have a role in relapsing T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.
Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to PRF1 Mutation
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome that causes systemic inflammation which can progress to multiorgan failure and death. Symptoms and signs commonly seen in HLH include high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypertriglyceridemia. This report describes the 8-month clinical course of a 17-year-old male with G6PD deficiency who presented with intermittent high fever of unknown origin for 8 months accompanied by pancytopenia and bilateral lower limb weakness. A pathogenic homozygous missense mutation (c.1081A > T p.(Arg361Trp)) in the PRF1 gene was detected by whole exome sequencing (WES). The brain and the whole spine MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement at different levels involving both the brain and the spine. Therefore, a diagnosis of familial HLH type 2 with CNS involvement was confirmed. Accordingly, treatment with dexamethasone, cyclosporin, and etoposide in addition to intrathecal methotrexate and hydrocortisone was given. The patient showed a dramatic response with significant neurological improvement of the bilateral lower limb weakness. Genetic analysis has helped the patient’s family with appropriate genetic counselling. This case highlights the importance of immediate treatment with immunosuppressants and the high clinical suspicion of physicians regarding HLH in areas where consanguinity is common.
NGS Analysis of Clonality and Minimal Residual Disease in a Patient with Concurrent Richter’s Transformation and CLL/SLL
B-cell lymphomas are neoplastic proliferations of clonal B lymphocytes. Clonality is generally determined by PCR amplification of VDJ rearrangements in the IgH heavy chain or VJ rearrangements in Igκ/Igλ light chain genes followed by capillary electrophoresis. More recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to detect clonality in B-cell lymphomas because of the exponential amount of information that is obtained beyond just detecting a clonal population. The additional information obtained is useful for diagnostic confirmation, prognosis assessment, and response to therapy. In this study, we utilized NGS analysis to characterize two histologically distinct lymphomas (DLBCL and CLL/SLL) that were detected contemporaneously in an asymptomatic patient. NGS analysis showed that the same VDJ rearrangement was present in nodal (DLBCL) and marrow (CLL/SLL) biopsies confirming that the DLBCL resulted from Richter’s transformation of a subclinical CLL/SLL. The V region of the rearrangement remained unmutated without somatic hypermutation. In silico analysis showed that the HCDR3 sequence was heterogeneous and not stereotypic. Minimal residual disease analysis by NGS showed that the tumor clone decreased by 2.84 logs in the bone marrow after R-CHOP therapy. However, a small number of tumor cells were still detected in the peripheral blood after R-CHOP therapy. Subsequent allogeneic transplantation was successful in eradicating the tumor clone and achieving deep molecular remission. We show that NGS analysis facilitated clinical management in our patient by helping to characterize the VDJ rearrangement in detail and by tracking minimal residual disease with high sensitivity and specificity.
An Unusual Cause of Secondary ITP in a 34-Year-Old Hispanic Male
Secondary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been described in the literature. It appears to have a geographic distribution; mostly encountered in countries with a higher prevalence for H. pylori such as Italy or Japan. H. pylori eradication has been recommended in the management of ITP with studies showing improvement in the platelet count in some patients. Substantial platelet count increases in patients with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <30 × 103 microliter), however, are uncommon with H. pylori treatment alone. Here, we present a 34-year-old Hispanic male with worsening chronic thrombocytopenia that resolved following eradication of his H. pylori infection. Herein, we highlight a rare and reversible cause of secondary ITP. With this case report, we hope to encourage physicians to include H. pylori testing in the evaluation of thrombocytopenia.
Necrotizing Bacterial Myositis as the Initial Presentation of Severe Aplastic Anaemia
Introduction. Necrotizing soft tissue infections are rapidly progressing infections associated with severe inflammation and cytokine release. Early recognition and surgical intervention are key factors to secure survival. The current case presents a patient with multifocal necrotizing soft tissue infection as the initial presentation of severe aplastic anaemia. Case Presentation. A man in his fifties was admitted with septic shock with multiorgan failure and severe pancytopenia, after two days of malaise with high fever and right flank pain. The diagnosis streptococcal necrotizing myositis was significantly delayed due to atypical clinical findings. After initial surgical exploration, the decision was made to defer from surgical debridement due to extensive involvement of several muscle groups, grave pancytopenia, and suspected dismal prognosis. Surprisingly, the patient stabilized after antibiotics and intensive care treatment. Based on severe pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow, with no evidence of other bone marrow disorders, the patient was diagnosed with aplastic anaemia. Treatment for aplastic anaemia with antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, and eltrombopaq was started, and 2 months later, a partial haematological recovery was observed. The patient could be discharged from hospital without antibiotic treatment. Conclusions. This case illustrates the crucial role of a multidisciplinary approach on admission and further during the clinical course. Clinical improvement despite severe neutropenia and stabilization during immunosuppressive therapy suggest that immunological factors modulate clinical course in necrotizing soft tissue infections.