Prefibrotic Myelofibrosis Presenting with Multiple Cerebral Embolic Infarcts and the Rare MPL W515S MutationRead the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Fatal Retroperitoneal Hematoma in a Patient Receiving Enoxaparin for Bilateral Pulmonary Emboli
Venous thromboembolism occurs when a deep vein thrombosis travels to the lungs and forms a pulmonary embolism. Low-molecular-weight heparins are a mainstay in the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism and should be initiated promptly due to substantial morbidity and mortality. A rare side effect of low-molecular-weight heparins is major bleeding, which also carries a significant morbidity and mortality rate. Here, we present a case of a fatal retroperitoneal hematoma in a patient being treated with enoxaparin for bilateral pulmonary emboli.
Hereditary Hyperferritinemia-Cataract Syndrome in 3 Generations of a Family in East Tennessee
Hereditary hyperferritinemia and cataracts syndrome (HHCS) without iron overload is a syndrome first identified less than 3 decades ago. While investigators have dissected the gene where several responsible mutations reside, it remains a relatively unknown genetic disorder to clinicians. The result is often an expensive, invasive evaluation for iron overload, followed by a well-intended prescription for a series of phlebotomies that delivers morbidity instead of benefit. We present a father with an elevated ferritin and heterozygosity for H63D HFE mutation whose clinical course followed this path. His treatment rendered him symptomatic from iron deficiency with no reduction in his ferritin. On re-evaluation, a review of his past medical history clarified the cataract surgery noted in his record had occurred at a young age. Furthermore, one of his daughters required cataract surgery as a teenager. With this information, we strongly suspected HHCS. His phlebotomies were discontinued, and within weeks, his iatrogenic iron deficiency resolved and his health returned to normal.
Chronic Atrophic Gastritis with Negative Intrinsic Factor and Parietal Cell Antibody Presenting as a Severe Hemolytic Anemia
A 28-year-old Caucasian male with Hashimoto’s disease and vitiligo presented with two weeks of dizziness on exertion following pharyngitis which was treated with prednisone 40 mg by mouth once a day for five days. Initial workup revealed anemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and low haptoglobin. He underwent workup for causes of hemolytic anemia which was remarkable for a peripheral blood smear with hypersegmented neutrophils and low vitamin B12 levels concerning for pernicious anemia. Parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies were negative, and he then underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. The biopsy was negative for Helicobacter pylori, and the immunohistochemical stains were suggestive of chronic atrophic gastritis. He was started on vitamin B12 1,000 mcg intramuscular injections daily. His hemoglobin, LDH, and haptoglobin normalized. Given the absence of the parietal cell antibody and intrinsic factor antibody, this is a rare case of seronegative pernicious anemia.
Two Consecutive Episodes of Severe Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction in a Sickle Cell Disease Patient
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from anemia and painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and sometimes need blood transfusions. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is a rare life-threatening complication observed in SCD and mimics VOC. We describe a female SCD patient undergoing three surgical procedures during which DHTR developed following the first two. Prior to a planned tonsillectomy, she received transfusion and three days after surgery developed severe hemolysis as well as pain and respiratory symptoms. On suspicion of VOC, she received additional transfusions and became hemodynamically unstable, and her hemolytic anemia worsened. Gradually, she recovered and could be discharged after two weeks; DHTR was not suspected. Sixteen months later, an arthroplasty was performed due to avascular necrosis, and again she was transfused preoperatively. Similar to the initial surgery, she developed symptoms and signs of VOC after three days, but this time, DHTR was suspected and further transfusions were withheld. Although immunosuppressive medication did not alleviate the condition, she improved on combined treatment with darbepoietin, rituximab, and eculizumab. Six months later, a second arthroplasty was performed uneventfully after prophylaxis with rituximab and without transfusion. DHTR should be considered in the presence of severe, unexplained hemolysis following a recent transfusion, and additional transfusions in this setting should be given only on vital indication.
Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma in a Patient on Apixaban for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Background. With the rise in the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), more hemorrhagic complications are being encountered. Since the first description of a case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) related to the utilization of DOACs in 2012, there have been few reports describing a similar association. However, no cases so far have reported an association between SSEHs and apixaban. Case Description: A 76-year-old lady, with a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, presented with a new onset of progressive left lower and upper extremity weakness. She reported back pain and numbness in the left leg up to the knee along with numbness in the left arm up to the shoulder. A CT scan of the neck was suggestive of an epidural hematoma extending from C2-C3 level to C6-C7. As the patient was on apixaban at the time, surgical treatment was delayed for two days to decrease the risk of intraoperative bleeding. Nine days later, she was discharged. Her physical exam was almost unchanged from that on presentation, except for resolution of pain and minimal improvement in motor power in her left lower extremity from 1/5 to 2/5 distally. Conclusions. Spinal hematomas represent surgical emergencies with earlier intervention portending better outcome. Based on the few case reports that point to DOACs as a potential culprit, it appears that a high suspicion index resulting in earlier SSEH diagnosis and intervention is crucial for improved neurological outcome and recovery. Prompt diagnosis remains a challenge, especially that SSEH can mimic cerebrovascular accidents.
CD7-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as an Intranasal Tumor
We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a cluster of differentiation (CD) 7-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the right nasal cavity. Flow cytometry analyses showed CD7 and CD20 positivity in tumor cells. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP plus local radiation therapy because positron emission tomography-computed tomography after R-CHOP revealed an intranasal lesion. The patient achieved complete remission (CR) after radiation therapy. The frequency of CD7-positive DLBCL is rare, and only 11 cases with follow-up of clinical course have been reported thus far. CR or partial response was noted in 8 of 11 cases after receiving rituximab combined with chemotherapy. In total, 9 of 12 cases involved the development of extranodal lesions, which occurred as an intranasal tumor in 3 cases. It is important to examine the clinical features by accumulation of further cases.