Hemorrhagic Cystitis Secondary to Adenovirus and BK Virus Infection in a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patient with Recent CAR T-Cell TherapyRead the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Acute Iatrogenic Agranulocytosis: A Rare and Dire Case of an Adverse Drug Reaction to Be Aware
Background. Iatrogenic agranulocytosis (IA), by nonchemotherapeutic drugs, is a rare adverse event, resulting in a neutrophil count under 0.5 × 109 cells/L with fever or other suggestive signs of infection. Methods. This paper discusses the possible mechanisms responsible for agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapeutic drugs. It also describes three cases as well as potential ways to handle such iatrogenic situations. Conclusion. Neutropenia under 0.1 × 109 cells/L predispose patients to potentially fatal infections. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic and hematopoietic growth factors may be helpful in shortening hospitalization and prevent further infectious complications. Not all drugs associated with IA require frequent hematological monitoring, except medications such as clozapine, ticlopidine, and antithyroids.
Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
The clinical management of severely ill patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) presents significant challenges. Many COVID-19 patients with ARDS also present with laboratory findings significant for derangement in coagulation function. In this report, we describe acute pulmonary embolism in three patients with COVID-19. We assessed the role of D-dimer assay and anticoagulation treatment in these patients. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness about the use of D-dimer in addition to patient’s clinical status for making treatment decision in COVID-19 patients.
Lenalidomide-Associated Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Lenalidomide is indicated in the front-line management of multiple myeloma. More recently, it has been introduced for use in treating other hematologic malignancies. Although the drug is known to cause myelosuppression, there have been rare reports of lenalidomide-associated immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Here, we review the literature on lenalidomide-associated ITP and report upon a 59-year-old man who was administered lenalidomide due to concern of progressive multiple myeloma more than a year following his having undergone an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. His platelet count precipitously declined and lead to his hospitalization. Despite our withholding of the drug, he did not respond to platelet transfusions or administration of corticosteroids. He was successfully managed with intermittent immune globulin for several months before definitive treatment with splenectomy, which resulted in the complete resolution of his thrombocytopenia. A literature search identified a total of six additional cases of lenalidomide-associated ITP. Similarly, many of the reported cases were associated with persistent thrombocytopenia after discontinuation of the drug. Furthermore, these patients were generally managed successfully with standard ITP therapies, such as corticosteroids or intravenous immune globulin.
Dasatinib and FLAG-IDA Is an Effective Therapy for Initial Myeloid Blast Crisis but Involves a High Risk of Opportunistic Infections
Blast crisis (BC) continues to be the major challenge in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Best results have been observed in a few patients who were successfully transplanted after returning to chronic phase. Recent studies focus on the combination of chemotherapy with imatinib, but results remain unsatisfactory. Since dasatinib induces deeper and faster responses, a reasonable strategy might be to combine it with chemotherapy, taking into account the alterations in T-cell response induced by dasatinib. However, there are no published studies or case reports supporting the use of dasatinib as first line treatment for initial myeloid BC, and very little is known about infectious complications associated with this drug. Based on this, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with an initial nonlymphoid phenotype BC, who achieved molecular response (MR4.5) with dasatinib and FLAG-IDA, but he suffered a pulmonary aspergillosis, CMV infection, and a CMV reactivation, prior to an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In conclusion, dasatinib and FLAG-IDA is an effective therapy for initial BC. However, a warning call is needed owing to the high risk of opportunistic infections, such as CMV.
EF Bart’s Disease with Coinheritance of Gγ-XmnI and Aγ-Globin Polymorphisms: A Case of Nontransfusion-Dependant Thalassemia
EF Bart’s disease is a rare form of nontransfusion-dependant thalassemia (NTDT) due to the coinheritance of homozygous hemoglobin E (βE/βE) genotype with hemoglobin H disease. These individuals are routinely found to have thalassemia intermedia with moderate anemia, increased hemoglobin Bart’s and hemoglobin F on electrophoresis. The contribution of hemoglobin F-inducing polymorphisms in this disease has not been described previously. Here, we describe the hematological profile in a young child with coinheritance of Gγ-XmnI and Aγ-globin gene polymorphisms in EF Bart’s disease. Interestingly, in this rare form of NTDT, normal HbF and elevated HbA2 were noted.
A Rare CD4−CD8+ Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma with Unique Molecular Mutations: A Case Report with Literature Review
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm caused by infection of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Most ATLL cases are CD4-positive and CD8-negative. Though rare, there are a few dual negative (CD4−CD8−), dual positive (CD4+CD8+), and CD4−CD8+ cases reported in literature. ATLL is associated with HTLV-1 infection, but HTLV-1 alone cannot cause the malignant transformation of infected T cells. Additional genetic and/or epigenetic events are required for the development of the disease. Here, we report an unusual CD4−CD8+ATLL in a 76-year-old male with a unique molecular genetic profile. Molecular studies revealed alterations in 10 genes. Three of them are predicted to be pathogenic by the computational models, including the frameshift change in ZFHX4 and missense mutations in RHOA and POT1. The specific mutations of POT1 (c.281A > G; p.Q94R), RHOA (c.47G > A; p.C16Y), and ZFHX4 (c.2871delC; p.F958Sfs31) have never been previously reported in ATLL to the best of our knowledge. The clinical significance of other genetic alterations is unknown. Further research is warranted to correlate this patient’s molecular findings with other ATLL cases. Correlation specifically with other cases of CD8+ ATLL could prove to be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare variant of an already rare form of leukemia/lymphoma.