Severe Thrombocytopenia Two Weeks Following Immunization with the Janssen Ad26.CoV2.S VaccineRead the full article
Case Reports in Hematology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Daratumumab, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone (DRD), an Active Regimen in the Treatment of Immunosuppression-Associated Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) in the Setting of Gorham’s Lymphangiomatosis: Review of the Literature
Characterized by an aggressive course with a poor overall survival due to treatment refractoriness, plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare variant of diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma. Gorham’s lymphangiomatosis or Gorham–Stout disease (GSD) is a rare skeletal condition of unknown etiology characterized by progressive bone loss and nonmalignant proliferation of vascular and lymphatic channels within the affected bone. Neither disease has a standard of care. We present a 23-year-old HIV-negative woman with GSD, managed medically with octreotide and sirolimus, who developed PBL. After progressing on V-EPOCH (bortezomib, etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone), she was treated with daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (DRD) therapy and achieved complete remission after two cycles with progression after eight cycles. This is a report of treatment of PBL with DRD therapy. Clinical investigations of the DRD regimen in PBL in conjunction with other agents to improve both depth and durability of response are warranted.
Immune Thrombocytopenia following COVID-19 Vaccine
Several vaccines have been developed and are being administered against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Common side effects include fever, chills, headache, myalgia, and soreness at the injection site. However, some rare adverse effects have also been reported. We present a case of induced thrombocytopenia presenting with petechiae and mucosal bleeding which developed as an adverse response after first-dose administration of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.
Unusual B-Lymphoid Blastic Crisis as Initial Presentation of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Imposes Diagnostic Challenges
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder, characterized by reciprocal translocation t(9,22) (q34; q11), leading to increased myeloid proliferation. Most cases are diagnosed in the chronic phase (CP). However, a minority of cases can be present in the blastic phase (BP). In most patients with CML-BP, the blasts have a myeloid phenotype, however, in 20–30% of cases, the blasts have a lymphoid phenotype, mostly a B-cell phenotype. It is challenging to differentiate CML B-lymphoblastic phase (CML-BLP) from Ph + primary B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) especially when the CML-BLP is the initial presentation of the disease, which is uncommon. We report here an unusual case of CML-BLP as an initial presentation of the disease without typical CML morphological findings. This case demonstrates diagnostic challenges and emphasizes the importance of an integrated approach using morphology, multiparametric flow cytometry, cytogenetic studies, and molecular studies to render an accurate diagnosis.
Systemic Relapse in a Young Adult Patient with Primary CNS Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, characterized by an aggressive disease course. While CNS relapse is common, systemic relapse is rare with no consensus on optimal treatment. This paper presents an unusual case of advanced PCNS-DLBCL with systemic relapse, including adrenal gland involvement. A review of the existing literature and a discussion on the management of systemic relapse in PCNS-DLBCL is also provided.
An Unusual Case of Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Introduction. Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare disease entity associated with textured breast implants. Though the clinical course is typically indolent, BIA-ALCL can occasionally invade through the capsule into the breast parenchyma with spread to the regional lymph nodes and beyond including chest wall invasive disease. Case. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with a history of bilateral silicone breast implants placed approximately twenty years ago who presented with two months of progressively enlarging right breast mass. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of right breast mass and right axillary lymph node showed CD 30-positive ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and staging work up showed extension of the tumor to chest wall and ribs consistent with advanced disease. She received CHP-BV (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, prednisone, and brentuximab vedotin) for six cycles with complete metabolic response. This was followed by extensive surgical extirpation and reconstruction, radiation for residual disease and consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant. She is currently on maintenance brentuximab vedotin with no evidence of active disease post autologous stem cell transplant. Conclusion. Treatment guidelines for advanced chest wall invasive BIA-ALCL are not well defined. Lack of predictive factors warrants mutation analysis and genetic sequencing to identify those at highest risk of progression to chest wall invasive disease. This rare case highlights the need for definitive consensus on the optimal management of chest wall invasive BIA-ALCL.
Tibial Plasmablastic Lymphoma in a HIV-Negative Child: A Novel Extraoral Localisation
Plasmablastic lymphoma is an aggressive, high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma predominantly seen in HIV-infected individuals. Alongside a strong correlation with HIV, PBL can manifest in immunocompromised HIV-negative patients. A rare case of PBL in an immunocompetent and otherwise healthy child presented to Indus Hospital & Health Network (IHHN), Karachi, Pakistan. The patient had complaints of swelling and pain in the right leg and was referred from a city in Interior Sindh. Histopathological analysis revealed sheets and aggregates of neoplasm replacing bone marrow interspersed with sclerotic bony fragments. Large, monomorphic, multinucleated neoplastic cells containing abundant cytoplasm and scattered pleomorphic cells were also noted, leading to the diagnosis of tibial plasmablastic lymphoma. A FAB/LMB96 group C chemotherapy regimen for aggressive and high-risk cancer was administered with a marked improvement in clinical symptoms.