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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2013, Article ID 291518, 3 pages
Case Report

Mycobacterium avium Complex-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Sickle Cell Patient: An Unusual Fatal Association

1Department of Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
2Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Department of Hospital Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
3Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-9, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4Section Head, Hematopathology, Chairman, Department of Clinical Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195, USA

Received 13 March 2013; Accepted 28 April 2013

Academic Editors: D. Galanakis, K. Konstantopoulos, and Y. Matsukawa

Copyright © 2013 Mohammed A. R. Chamsi-Pasha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hyperinflammatory syndrome, characterized clinically by fever, splenomegaly, cytopenia, and high ferritin. Infectious causes have been associated with secondary HLH, with viruses being the most common. We report a case of Mycobacterium avium complex-associated HLH in a sickle cell anemia patient. To the best of our knowledge, this association has never been reported in sickle cell anemia.