Case Reports in Hematology / 2013 / Article / Figbox 1

Case Report

A Case of Erythrocytosis in a Patient Treated with an Aromatase Inhibitor for Breast Cancer

Box 1

Differential diagnosis of erythrocytosis. EPO indicates erythropoietin; 2,3-DPG, 2,3-disphosphoglycerate.
Secondary polycythemia
         Appropriately increased EPO
     Pulmonary disease
     Cyanotic heart disease
     Obstructive sleep apnea
     Carbon monoxide, for example, smoking
     High altitude
         Inappropriately increased EPO
     Tumour polycythemia, for example, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma
     Renal lesions, for example, polycystic kidney disease, kidney transplant
     Endocrinopathies, for example, Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism
         Drug-induced polycythemia, for example, exogenous EPO, androgens
Primary polycythemia
         Polycythemia vera
         Congenital polycythemias
     Abnormalities of oxygen sensing, for example, Chuvash polycythemia
     Alterations in oxygen affinity, for example, high affinity hemoglobins, methemoglobinemia
     Low 2,3-DPG

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.