Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 287479, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/287479
Case Report

Secondary Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Richter’s Transformation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

1Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
2Department of Hematology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

Received 21 November 2013; Accepted 11 December 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editors: D. J. Allsup and S. Tauro

Copyright © 2014 Nura El-Haj et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Janka, “Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: when the immune system runs amok,” Klinische Padiatrie, vol. 221, no. 5, pp. 278–285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Weitzman, “Approach to hemophagocytic syndromes,” Hematology, vol. 2011, pp. 178–183, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Gupta, S. Weitzman, and M. Abdelhaleem, “The role of hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirates in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 192–194, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. S. Tiong, M. B. Y. Lau, S. Toumoua, and S. Chiruka, “A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia after treatment with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab chemotherapy, with autopsy findings,” Case Reports in Hematology, vol. 2012, Article ID 326053, 4 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. D. Rao, W. G. Morice, and R. L. Phyliky, “Hemophagocytosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and histoplasmosis,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 287–290, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. C. Riches and J. G. Gribben, “Understanding the immunodeficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: potential clinical implications,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 207–235, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. T. L. Parker and M. P. Strout, “Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: prognostic factors and impact on treatment,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 11, no. 57, pp. 115–123, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. A. Freeman, K. R. Crassini, O. G. Best et al., “Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency and infection risk in 150 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. D. Hamblin and T. J. Hamblin, “The immunodeficiency of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 49–62, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. D. Wadhwa and V. A. Morrison, “Infectious complications of chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 240–249, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Lai, B. Y. Merritt, L. Chen, X. Zhou, and L. K. Green, “Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with influenza A, (H1N1) infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an autopsy case report and review of the literature,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 477–484, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. L. Chaker, C. M. Segeren, F. J. Bot, and E. Maartense, “Haemophagocytic syndrome and Hodgkin's disease variant of Richter's syndrome after fludarabine for CLL,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 91–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. P. van Koeveringe and R. E. Brouwer, “Histoplasma capsulatum reactivation with haemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia,” Netherlands Journal of Medicine, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 418–421, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Manoharan, D. Catovsky, and I. A. Lampert, “Histiocytic medullary reticulosis complicating chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: malignant or reactive?” Scandinavian Journal of Haematology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Meki, D. O'Connor, C. Roberts, and J. Murray, “Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 24, pp. e685–e687, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. K. Ando, K. Miyazawa, Y. Kuriyama, Y. Kimura, K. Mukai, and K. Ohyashiki, “Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with CD8 positive T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 193–198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J.-I. Henter, A. Horne, M. Aricó et al., “HLH-2004: diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 124–131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Nosari, “Infectious complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 1, Article ID e2012070, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Tsiodras, G. Samonis, M. J. Keating, and D. P. Kontoyiannis, “Infection and immunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 1039–1054, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Sampalo and J. A. Brieva, “Humoral immunodeficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: role of CD95/CD95L in tumoral damage and escape,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 881–884, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Roschewski and W. H. Wilson, “EBV-associated lymphomas in adults,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 75–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. R. Chen, “Epstein-barr virus, the immune system, and associated diseases,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 2, article 5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. E. Grywalska, J. Markowicz, P. Grabarczyk, M. Pasiarski, and J. Roliński, “Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders,” Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, vol. 67, pp. 481–490, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. B. Pattle and P. J. Farrell, “The role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1193–1205, 2006. View at Google Scholar