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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 943867, 5 pages
Case Report

Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

1Department of Internal Medicine, Uji-Tokushukai Medical Center, Uji 611-0042, Japan
2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Uji-Tokushukai Medical Center, Uji 611-0042, Japan

Received 13 June 2015; Revised 22 September 2015; Accepted 27 September 2015

Academic Editor: Eduardo Arellano-Rodrigo

Copyright © 2015 Toshiki Tanaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL). High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL) and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5%) in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL) and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2%) in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.