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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4342820, 6 pages
Case Report

Simultaneous Manifestation of Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma during Treatment by Prednisolone and Eltrombopag for Immune-Mediated Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Department of Hematology, Eiju General Hospital, 2-23-16 Higashi-Ueno, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8645, Japan

Received 30 March 2016; Revised 9 June 2016; Accepted 10 July 2016

Academic Editor: Kazunori Nakase

Copyright © 2016 Masao Hagihara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe thrombocytopenia. He was diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and prednisolone together with eltrombopag was started, leading to significant improvement of platelet counts. Four years later, there was a prominent increase of peripheral blood monocytes, which was accompanied by recurrence of thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspirates and serum electrophoresis revealed coexistence of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and multiple myeloma (MM). The patient received lenalidomide plus dexamethasone therapy but died due to exacerbation of the disorder. It was supposed that thrombocytopenia was secondarily caused by CMML and MM developed at a later period.