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Case Reports in Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 523589, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/523589
Case Report

Visceral Leishmaniasis or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Flare?

1Department of General Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
2Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India

Received 20 June 2012; Accepted 30 July 2012

Academic Editors: B. Sarov and A. Vojdani

Copyright © 2012 Sunny Garg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterised by B-cell hyperactivity with production of multiple autoantibodies. Fever in SLE may be caused by disease exacerbation or by infection. We report a patient of SLE that was later complicated by fever, pancytopenia, and massive splenomegaly. Corticosteroid therapy for SLE might have masked the underlying infection at earlier stage. Despite negative results of rk-39 test and bone marrow biopsy, a very high suspicion for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) led us to go for direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for leishmanial antigen that revealed positive results. Moreover, significant improvement in clinical and biochemical parameters was noted on starting the patient on antileishmanial therapy.