Native Valve Infective Endocarditis Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in an Immunocompetent Host: The First Case in Asia and Literature Review in Asia and AustraliaRead the full article
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases publishes case reports and case series related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Fatal Brucellosis Infection in a Liver Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Brucellosis is the most common zoonosis, particularly in developing countries. The true incidence of human brucellosis is unknown. The WHO points out that 500,000 cases of brucellosis are reported each year from around the world. In Colombia, there is currently no regular surveillance of the event in humans and its prevalence is low due a low clinical suspicion. We report a case of a 66-year-old man, an urban merchant, who had received a liver transplant 11 years ago. The patient presented to the emergency department for two months of fatigue, severe myalgia, paresis of the extremities, loss of muscle strength, and progressive deterioration of functional class. In the emergency room, he became disoriented and was transferred to the intensive-care unit. He had a white blood cell count of 18990/uL and creatine phosphokinase 10302 U/L. Routine blood cultures were positive for Brucella melitensis. The patient reported consumption of unpasteurized bovine milk. He was treated with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Despite antibiotic management, after one month of hospitalization and in the context of septic shock with multiorgan failure, the patient died. Brucellosis is an unsuspected and underdiagnosed disease. It can occur in people with or without risk factors. Although the mortality is low, immunocompromised patients can develop fatal infections. A presumptive diagnosis can be established through the correlation of patient history and classic laboratory findings, which include transaminitis, anemia, and leukopenia with relative lymphocytosis; however, other findings can help us to guide the diagnosis, such as rhabdomyolysis, which appears as a complication in different infections; however, it had not been described before in brucellosis. A partnership between clinical suspicion laboratory diagnostic tests and improved disease surveillance systems is necessary to fight the disease.
A 14-Year-Old Male Patient with Kawasaki Disease Presented with Stroke after COVID-19
According to several studies, children represent only about 2% of the patients affected by the current SARS-CoV-2, and most often, they are asymptomatic. However, there is a concern about a vascular inflammatory disease which is similar to Kawasaki disease observed in children and adolescents weeks after infection. We report a case of Kawasaki disease presented with ischemic stroke in a 14-year-old male patient following SARS-Cov-2 infection.
Disseminated Candida lusitaniae: Nosocomial Acquisition Secondary to an Indwelling Urinary Catheter
Candida lusitaniae is a rare opportunistic pathogen, and its most common risk factors include immunocompromised patients often with an underlying malignancy. It commonly displays resistance to amphotericin B, and historically, echinocandins have been considered first-line treatment. We present a 77-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus. He was treated for cellulitis and discharged to a skilled nursing facility with an indwelling urinary catheter. Despite recommendations from the medicine team to remove the catheter, the patient refused even after discussing the risks and benefits. He returned to the hospital 3 weeks later with symptoms of dysarthria, right-sided facial droop, and right-sided weakness. Ultimately, he was determined to have fungemia and native valve endocarditis due to Candida lusitaniae stemming from his indwelling urinary catheter. He was treated with micafungin, but repeated blood cultures continued to grow C. lusitaniae, and he eventually expired following withdrawal of care. We present this case report to illustrate a rare occurence of Candida lusitaniae in a patient without typical risk factors. C. lusitaniae fungemia is an extremely uncommon disease in patients without underlying malignancy. Despite this lack of apparent, classic risk factors, our patient developed endocarditis of his native valve due to C. lusitaniae fungemia from an indwelling urinary catheter. The ability of this organism to form biofilms, and its rapid mutation rate, makes treating C. lusitaniae very difficult. The treatment of choice for C. lusitaniae endocarditis is surgical intervention due to biofilm formation on the cardiac valves. Medical treatment recommendations are currently fluconazole, which is in contrast to the historical use of echinocandins. Infection due to Candida lusitaniae, though rare, should be remembered by clinicians. This particular fungal agent is especially difficult to treat due to its multiple virulence factors. Additionally, the use of indwelling urinary catheters should only occur when proper indications are present and should be promptly discontinued when their placement is no longer necessary.
A Case of John Cunningham Virus Induced Rhombencephalitis after Rituximab Therapy for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Background. John Cunningham virus (JCV) is known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immuno-compromised patients due to lytic infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Rarely, it may also present as granule cell neuronopathy (GCN), leading to degeneration of cerebellar granule cell neurons. It is described in patients with underlying conditions or medication contributing to immune compromise. Case Presentation. A 73-year-old man presented with ataxia and difficulty in speech which began 3 months after initiation of treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with rituximab. Neurological examination was significant for torsional nystagmus, motor aphasia, right-sided dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia with gait ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed right cerebellar lesion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for JC virus. Conclusion. The diagnosis of JC virus-related cerebellar disease can be missed, due to the subacute to chronic onset and challenges in detection. Clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for development of these symptoms, even a few months after initiation of immune-modulatory therapy because the progression and outcomes can be disastrous.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus Bloodstream Infection Associated with an Urticarial Exanthem
Background. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing, Gram-negative rod that is a commensal bacterium in normal gingival flora of canine and feline species. Infection with the organism may cause disease ranging from flu-like symptoms to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), fulminant sepsis, meningitis, and endocarditis with an overall fatality rate of 6–26%. Risk factors for infection from C. canimorsus include immunosuppression, alcoholism, and asplenia. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case with a relatively indolent clinical course and an urticarial exanthem in an otherwise young immunocompetent patient with a history of type 1 diabetes. The patient presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a <1-day history of rhinorrhea, fever, and dyspnea. He met sepsis criteria on initial presentation, but left against medical advice and returned to the ED the following day, with new arthralgias and a diffuse rash, multiple erythematous, tender macules scattered across his trunk and extremities, and tonsillar erythema. He had not taken the doses of the prescribed amoxicillin. Blood cultures two days later signaled positive for growth with the Gram stain showing a Gram-negative rod. Three 7-8 cm tender targetoid lesions with central clearing were identified on the patient’s back. The patient reported two nonengorged ticks crawling on his body a week prior and sustaining a dog bite to his ear three weeks before presentation. Ultimately, the organism was identified as C. canimorsus through MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and additional biochemical testing. He was given appropriate antibiotics and improved clinically thereafter. Despite the patient’s bacteremia, he never progressed to fulminant sepsis and followed a mild clinical course with several unusual characteristics. C. canimorsus is an uncommon cause of illness in humans, but is an important pathogen to consider when evaluating a patient with a dog bite, known risk factors, and an urticarial exanthem as empiric treatment may prevent severe outcomes.
Nocardia thailandica Brain Abscess in an Immunocompromised Patient
Objectives. Successful treatment for Nocardia thailandica is not well elucidated in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, N. thailandica has not yet been described in the medical literature to cause central nervous system (CNS) infection from brain abscess. We report the case of an immunocompromised patient who underwent successful treatment to treat his brain abscess caused by N. thailandica. Methods. After failing medical therapy, the patient underwent a craniotomy, and tissue was sent for culture. Upon identification by 16S rDNA sequencing, the organism causing infection was identified to be N. thailandica. Results. Based on susceptibilities, the patient was treated with IV ceftriaxone 2 grams daily for five months. The patient demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement which persisted to 7 months after initiation of therapy. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a brain abscess due to N. thailandica which was successfully treated. Due to the location of the infection, ceftriaxone was chosen because of optimal CNS penetration. Ceftriaxone monotherapy demonstrated clinical and radiographic treatment success resulting in the successful treatment of this infection.