Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Severe Neutropenia Not Responding to Standard TherapyRead the full article
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases publishes case reports and case series in all areas of hematology, including general hematology, pathology, and oncology, with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias.
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Pulmonary Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed on Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in a Mechanically Ventilated Patient
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world’s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or consuming undercooked meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is subclinical in immunocompetent hosts. Invasive toxoplasmosis often manifests as cerebral toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. In persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), toxoplasmosis occurs when CD4 counts are very low and is considered an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illness. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is rarely seen in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. The diagnosis can be challenging due to the nonspecific nature of clinical and radiographic findings. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a new onset AIDS patient, which was initially clinically misdiagnosed as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP). Due to a poor response to treatment for PJP, the patient underwent a transbronchial lung biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis.
Herbaspirillum Infection in Humans: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Introduction. Herbaspirillum seropedicae are Gram-negative oxidase-positive nonfermenting rods of Betaproteobacteria class, commonly found in rhizosphere. More recently, some Herbaspirillium species have transitioned from environment to human hosts, mostly as opportunistic (pathogenic) bacteria. We present a 58-year-old female with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who presented with pneumonia and was found to have Herbaspirillum seropedicae bacteremia. Case History. A 58-year-old woman with NSCLC on Pralsetinib presented with fevers and rigors for 2 days. Coarse breath sounds were auscultated on the right upper lung field. Labs revealed leukopenia and mild neutropenia. CT chest revealed right upper lobe pneumonia. She was admitted for sepsis secondary to pneumonia and placed on broad spectrum antibiotics with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin. The patient continued to have fever 2 days after admission (max: 102.8°F). Preliminary blood cultures grew Gram-negative rods. The patient continued to have temperature spikes on the 3rd day of antibiotics (Tmax 101.5°F). Blood cultures revealed oxidase-positive nonfermenting rods. The patient’s antibiotic was changed to IV meropenem on the 4th day of hospitalization. Ultimately, on the seventh day of hospitalization, the blood culture was confirmed from outside lab as Herbaspirillum seropedicae. The patient started feeling better and defervesced after about 24 hours. Discussion. More recently, Herbaspirillum spp. have been recovered from humans. Our patient had Herbaspirillum bacteremia, and reported regularly cleaning her pond and weeding her garden with possible exposure to this environmental proteobacterium. Herbaspirillum may be more prevalent than earlier thought owing to misidentification. With the institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, the outcomes seem mostly favorable.
Invisible Facial Flushing in Two Cases of Dengue Infection and Influenza Detected by PC Program and Smartphone App: Decorrelation Stretching and K-Means Clustering
We report the two cases of dengue infection and influenza with invisible facial flushing. The invisible facial flushing can be detected and visible by the Manote and Matinun (M&M) technique using PC program and smartphone app (decorrelation stretching and K-Means clustering). The unique patterns of facial flushing in the patients with high fever provide a clue to the diagnosis of dengue infection and influenza. This new innovative method could detect dengue infection and influenza earlier in the patients with high fever.
Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infection with Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in a Postsplenectomy Patient
The incidence of invasive group B streptococcal disease (GBS) in nonpregnant population is increasing. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are 10 cases in every 100,000 nonpregnant adults each year, and 1 in 20 nonpregnant adults with serious GBS infections die. GBS infection is almost always associated with underlying risk factors such as diabetes mellitus or malignancy. We present a 47-year-old female with a remote history of splenectomy presented with toxic shock-like syndrome secondary to invasive GBS infection.
Severe Pulmonary Infection in a 20-Month-Old Female
Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for hospitalization of a pediatric patient. We report a 20-month-old female admitted for suspected CAP. History included a week-long cough, fever, dyspnea, single occurrence of seizure-like activity, and a sick contact. Initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed left lower lobe pneumonia and parapneumonic effusion with a complex left pleural effusion. Ultrasound findings prompted the need for contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest. Contrast-enhanced CT of the chest confirmed a large pleural effusion with major atelectasis and mediastinal shift. The patient was treated with empiric antibiotics, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) decortication of empyema, and chest tube placement. Due to intraoperative complications, the VATS decortication was aborted and patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A thoracentesis with culture failed to isolate a bacterial organism. Dexamethasone was started after repeat CXR showed persistent infiltrate. Subsequent contrast-enhanced CT of the chest showed a large collection of air and persistent consolidation. The patient received repeat VATS decortication and reinsertion of a chest tube. Repeat pleural fluid cultures failed to isolate a bacterial organism. Infectious disease (ID) consult recommended linezolid 140 mg Q8H for 4 weeks. Seven days after second VATS, a respiratory pathogen panel was positive for rhinovirus/enterovirus. With resolution of leukocytosis and clinical improvement, the patient was discharged with the chest tube in place and pediatric surgery outpatient follow-up. After three months, sequalae from both the infection and interventions presented .
Fecal Microbial Transplantation for the Treatment of Persistent Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in a Critically Ill Patient
Dysbiosis of the microbiome is a common finding in critically ill patients, who receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and various forms of organ support. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are a growing threat in all areas of medicine, but most markedly in the critically ill, where there is both loss of host defences and widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics. We present a case of a critically ill patient with persistent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), using stool of a rigorously-screened, healthy donor. FMT for Clostridium difficile colitis has been well described in the literature and is an established therapy for recurrent infections with Clostridium difficile. The use of FMT for other multidrug-resistant organisms is less frequently described, particularly in the context of critically ill patients. In our case, we have culture-documented clearance of the MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae form a patient of FMT.