Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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Acceptance rate46%
Submission to final decision117 days
Acceptance to publication28 days
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Journal Citation Indicator0.200
Impact Factor-

Generalized Pruritus and Gradual Loss of Vision as the Presenting Complaints of Acute HIV Infection: Management Challenges during COVID-19 Pandemic

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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases publishes case reports and case series related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.

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Case Report

Justified Suspicion: Symptomatic Syphilitic Alopecia in a Patient with Well-Controlled HIV

Background. An estimated 25% of primary and secondary syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum, occurs in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Chesson et al., 2005). This association is especially evident in men who have sex with men (MSM). In HIV-positive patients, primary syphilis infection may progress more rapidly to the tertiary, and most destructive, stage and reinfection can start with the latent or tertiary stage; in such patients, advanced syphilis may arise without clinical warning signs (Kenyan et al., 2018). It is important to note that neurosyphilis can occur during any stage of infection in all patients, regardless of immunocompetence status (CDC, 2021). Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male with a past medical history of well-controlled HIV with a CD4 count of 700 cells/mm3 and an undetectable viral load, psoriasis, and a remote episode of treated syphilis, presented with a two-week history of a diffuse desquamating rash, alopecia, sinusitis, unilateral conjunctivitis, and blurred vision. His last sexual encounter was over ten months ago. The diagnosis of syphilis was confirmed by microhemagglutination assay, and he was treated for presumed neuro-ocular infection with a two-week course of intravenous Penicillin G. Conclusion. Syphilis has acquired a reputation as “the great masquerader” due to its protean manifestations. It may follow an unpredictable course, especially in HIV-positive patients, including those whose treatment has achieved undetectable serology. For example, ocular syphilis may present in an otherwise asymptomatic individual (Rein, 2020) and alopecia may arise as the sole indication of acute syphilitic infection (Doche et al., 2017). Therefore, a high index of suspicion is warranted in order to prevent severe and irreversible complications.

Case Series

Co-Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination among Healthcare Workers

The presented cases describe the concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection and inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among eight healthcare workers (HCWs). These cases highlighted the importance of broad hospital screening during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Further study regarding the durability of antibody response induced by infection and first-dose vaccination is required to determine the appropriate time for giving a second dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among these cases.

Case Report

Expanded Dengue Syndrome: A Case of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage, Cranial Diabetes Insipidus, and Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiosis

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection common in tropical countries with increasing incidence. The clinical manifestations can range from asymptomatic or mild infection to multiorgan failure. The latter is also called “Expanded dengue syndrome,” and it carries a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Intensive care management of such complicated cases is a challenging task for the treating physician, which requires intense monitoring and a multidisciplinary approach for decision making. We report an atypical case of an expanded dengue syndrome presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with moderate thrombocytopenia, cranial diabetes insipidus, and haemophagocytic lymphohistiosis in a young healthy female patient.

Case Report

International Normalized Ratio (INR) Increases amongst Two Patients Living with HIV on Warfarin after Being Switched from a Nevirapine to a Dolutegravir-Based Antiretroviral Regimen

The increased use of dolutegravir-based regimens in the treatment of HIV is unmasking drug interactions, particularly in patients who were previously on nevirapine. Nevirapine is an enzyme inducer and increases the dosing requirements for cytochrome P450 enzyme substrates including warfarin. Upon discontinuing nevirapine, close monitoring of drugs with narrow therapeutic indices is paramount since dosing requirements may significantly reduce, increasing the probability of toxicity development. We present two cases describing interactions experienced by patients living with HIV, while transitioning from nevirapine to dolutegravir-based HIV regimens. The first case describes a 70-year-old man living with HIV and diabetes, while the second case describes a 60-year-old woman living with HIV. They were diagnosed with unprovoked deep vein thrombi, and while receiving treatment with warfarin, their HIV medication regimen was changed from lamivudine, zidovudine, nevirapine, and septrin to lamivudine, tenofovir, dolutegravir, and septrin. During the weeks following this switch, warfarin requirements decreased resulting in supratherapeutic INRs. With the continued promotion of dolutegravir-based HIV regimens as the preferred option for the treatment of HIV in President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported HIV treatment programs in Africa, clinicians must be aware of the potentially life-threatening consequences of switching antiretroviral regimens. It is hoped that a greater awareness of this potential side effect could lead to increased monitoring and prevention of the consequences of drug interactions.

Case Report

A Case of Trichinellosis in a 14-Year-Old Male Child at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Sidama, Ethiopia

Background. Trichinellosis develops after ingestion of Trichinella cysts in pork meat. It is one of the most important parasitic human pathogens in the world. It is, however, underreported in part because none of the clinical manifestations are pathognomonic. The primary mode of transmission is ingestion of raw meat. Among the symptoms are muscle pain, swelling, and myopathy. High-grade fever and other systemic symptoms are not unusual. The hallmarks are ophthalmic and musculoskeletal manifestations, particularly conjunctival haemorrhage with periorbital edema and subungual splinter haemorrhage. Although the majority of infections are mild and asymptomatic, severe infections can result in enteritis, periorbital edema, and myositis. Presentation of the Case. A 14-year-old male patient from Oromia Region, Arsi Zone, West Arsi Zone, Bishan Guracha area, which is almost completely encircled by mountains, presented with a complaint of worsening easy fatigability and asymmetric right thigh enlargement lasting one month. The pertinent physical examinations on presentation were puffy face and eyes, and there was a 4 cm by 5 cm mass on the right lateral thigh with no overlying skin colour change, on-tender, and no discharge. Eosinophilia of 14% was noticed on the complete blood count. The definitive diagnosis of trichinellosis was made by muscle biopsy. He was then managed with albendazole and prednisolone and improved. Conclusion. Patients with periorbital edema, myositis, or eosinophilia should be evaluated for trichinellosis. Individuals who have these symptoms and a history of eating pork meat should be suspected of having trichinellosis. Before eating raw pork meat, it is recommended that it be cooked properly.

Case Report

Corticosteroid Management of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Patients with Bilateral Adrenalectomy

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic in March 2020, it has been wreaking havoc across countries, affecting people’s lives. Corticosteroids have proven to provide a mortality benefit in patients with COVID-19. Although dexamethasone is the most commonly used glucocorticoid and have shown to have mortality benefit in COVID-19 patients, it cannot be used in patients with adrenal insufficiency due to its lack of mineralocorticoid activity. Herein, we discuss a case of challenging corticosteroid management in a patient with COVID-19 complicated by her medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy.

Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate46%
Submission to final decision117 days
Acceptance to publication28 days
CiteScore-
Journal Citation Indicator0.200
Impact Factor-
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