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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 379320, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/379320
Case Report

Fatal Disseminated Fusarium Infection in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient

Department of Pathology, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20060, USA

Received 14 March 2013; Accepted 23 April 2013

Academic Editors: M. Ghate, P. Horrocks, and E. M. Stringer

Copyright © 2013 Ashwini K. Esnakula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Systemic mycotic infections have been increasing in incidence in immunocompromised patients. Although yeasts are most often isolated, opportunistic fungal infections may also be caused by filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus and Fusarium. Like Aspergillus, Fusarium is angioinvasive with an ability to disseminate widely. Disseminated fusariosis is most commonly linked to prolonged neutropenia. Disseminated infections due to Fusarium are rare in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients but have been reported in HIV positive patients with neutropenia and lymphoma. We describe an HIV positive patient without neutropenia, skin lesions, or concomitant malignancy, who developed fatal disseminated infection with possible endocarditis due to Fusarium solani. Early identification of Fusarium is important because of its high level of resistance to several antifungal drugs, with response often requiring combination therapy.