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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2015, Article ID 609637, 5 pages
Case Report

Primary Bronchopulmonary Actinomycosis Masquerading as Lung Cancer: Apropos of Two Cases and Literature Review

1Department of Pneumonology, Army General Hospital of Athens, 138 Mesogion & Katehaki Avenue, 115 25 Athens, Greece
2Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Army General Hospital of Athens, 138 Mesogion & Katehaki Avenue, 115 25 Athens, Greece

Received 2 May 2015; Accepted 28 May 2015

Academic Editor: Larry M. Bush

Copyright © 2015 Stamatis Katsenos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Actinomycosis is a rare and slowly progressive infectious disease that can affect a variety of organ systems including the lung. It is caused by filamentous Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Despite its rarity, pulmonary actinomycosis can involve lung parenchyma, bronchial structures, and chest wall. The disease can mimic lung malignancy given its nonspecific clinical and radiological presentation, thus posing a diagnostic dilemma to the attending physician. In this paper, we describe two patients with pulmonary actinomycosis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma; the former presented with peripheral infiltrate and associated hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the latter presented with a foreign body-induced endobronchial mass. Clinical, imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutical aspects of the disease are discussed, demonstrating the paramount importance of the histological examination of lung tissue specimens in the confirmation of the infection given either its low culture yield or the limited use of new molecular diagnostic tools in routine clinical practice.