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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3051212, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3051212
Case Report

Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis with Leptotrichia goodfellowii in a Patient with a Valvular Allograft: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
3Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
4Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
5Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Received 18 August 2016; Accepted 16 October 2016

Academic Editor: Alexandre Rodrigues Marra

Copyright © 2016 Wilfredo R. Matias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Leptotrichia species are normal constituents of the oral cavity and the genitourinary tract microbiota that are known to provoke disease in immunocompromised patients and rarely in immunocompetent individuals. Following the description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., two cases of endocarditis by this species have been reported. Here, we report a case of Leptotrichia goodfellowii endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient with a valvular allograft. The isolation and identification of Leptotrichia can be challenging, and it is likely that infection with this pathogen is significantly underdiagnosed. A definitive identification, as in this case, most often requires 16S rRNA gene sequencing, highlighting the increasingly important role of this diagnostic modality among immunocompetent patients with undetermined anaerobic bacteremia.