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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6549268, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6549268
Case Report

Acute Hemolysis with Renal Failure due to Clostridium Bacteremia in a Patient with AML

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9410, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA

Received 9 June 2016; Accepted 7 September 2016

Academic Editor: Daniela M. Cirillo

Copyright © 2016 R. M. Medrano-Juarez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We present a case of acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The high fatality of C. perfringens bacteremia requires that clinicians recognize and rapidly treat patients at risk for this infection. Although other hemolytic processes are in the differential diagnosis of these events, the presence of high fever, chills, and rapidly positive blood cultures may help narrow the diagnosis. Most cases of C. perfringens bacteremia have a concomitant coinfection, which makes broad spectrum empiric therapy essential. There is a high mortality rate of C. perfringens infections associated with leukemia.