Case Reports in Infectious Diseases / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Case Report

Neurosyphilis with Concomitant Cryptococcal and Tuberculous Meningitis in a Patient with AIDS: Report of a Unique Case

Table 2

Differential diagnosis of neurosyphilis.

Manifestations of neurosyphilisDifferential diagnosis

(1) Syphilitic meningitisTubercular meningitis
Fungal meningitis: Cryptococcus neoformans, endemic mycosis
Lyme disease
Listeria monocytogenes
(2) Meningovascular syphilisIschemic stroke
Embolic stroke
Herpes zoster
(3) GummataToxoplasmosis
Primary and metastatic neoplasms
(4) General paresisPsychiatric conditions: delirium, dementia, mania, psychosis
depression, personality changes
HIV dementia
Viral encephalitis: HSV, CMV, VZV, HHV-6
(5) Tabes dorsalisEpidural abscess
Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
HIV-associated vascular myelopathy
CMV myelopathy
Herpes zoster myelitis 
Multiple sclerosis

HIV= human immunodeficiency virus; HSV = herpes simplex virus; CMV = cytomegalovirus; VZV = varicella zoster virus; HHV-6 = human herpes virus 6; HTLV-1 = human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.

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