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Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Hepatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare cause of hepatitis in pregnancy and the chronically immunosuppressed, with a high propensity to progress to acute liver failure (ALF) and death. Patients typically present with a nonspecific clinical picture that often delays diagnosis and treatment, contributing to the high mortality rate. We present a case of a young female on chronic prednisone and hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who was diagnosed with HSV-2 hepatitis after presenting with right-sided chest and abdominal discomfort. Despite early clinical deterioration, prompt initiation of therapy with intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone led to rapid improvement.
Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Diagnostic Experience in a Reference Hospital: A Case Series
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, usually located in sun-exposed skin, with aggressive behavior and with high recurrence risk and metastatic disease. In Latin America, case series have been published, and it does not exceed 32 patients in 10 years, and in Colombia, there are case reports. We present a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study in patients diagnosed with MCC in the Department of Pathology and Laboratories at the University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá(FSFB) between January 2003 and December 2018. We present the demographic, clinical, and pathological variables of these patients, as well as a literature review.
Diffusion MRI Findings in Encephalopathy Induced by Immunosuppressive Therapy after Liver Transplantation
Neurological complications are common after liver transplantation, as they affect up to one-third of the transplanted patients and are associated with significant morbidity. The introduction of calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, in immunosuppressive regimens significantly improved the outcome of solid-organ transplantation even though immunosuppression-associated neurotoxicity remains a significant complication, particularly occurring in about 25% of cases after liver transplantation. The immunosuppressant cyclosporine A and tacrolimus have been associated with the occurrence of major neurological complications, diffuse encephalopathy being the most common. The biochemical and pathogenetic basis of calcineurin inhibitors-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear although several mechanisms have been suggested. Early recognition of symptoms could help reduce neurotoxic event. The aim of the study was to evaluate cerebral changes through MRI, in particular with diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, in two patients undergoing liver transplantation after immunosuppressive therapy. We describe two patients in which clinical pictures, presenting as a severe neurological condition, early after orthotopic liver transplantation during immunosuppression therapy, showed a different evolution in keeping with evidence of focal-multifocal lesions at DWI and ADC maps. At clinical onset, DWI showed hyperintensity of the temporo-parieto-occipital cortex with normal ADC values in the patient with following good clinical recovery and decreased values in the other one; in the latter case, MRI abnormalities were still present after ten days, until the patient’s exitus. The changes in DWI with normal ADC may be linked to brain edema with a predominant vasogenic component and therefore reversible, while the reduction in ADC is due to cytotoxic edema and linked to more severe, nonreversible, clinical picture. Brain MRI and particularly DWI and ADC maps provide not only a good and early representation of neurological complications during immunosuppressant therapy but can also provide a useful prognostic tool on clinical outcome of the patient.
A Remarkable Remission: Treating HMA Refractory Transforming MDS with Single-Agent Low-Dose Cytarabine Leading to an Ongoing Six-Year OS
Hypomethylating agents (HMA) are the standard of care for patients ≥65 years with intermediate-high risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) unsuitable for intensive therapy or stem cell transplant (SCT). However, many patients will develop relapse/refractory disease, at which point limited treatment options remain. There has been a lot of research into investigational agents following HMA failure, especially now into targeted therapy, but there is no final consensus or convincing data to guide clinicians. Low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) has been in the armamentarium for some time, but the value of LDAC is judged differently by various guidelines. Nevertheless, in a subgroup of patients who fail on a HMA and wish to continue treatment, LDAC may still have the potential to improve overall survival (OS). In this case report, we present an 85-year-old gentleman with HMA refractory high-risk/transforming MDS (with a noncomplex karyotype) achieving an ongoing six-year OS with single-agent second-line LDAC. LDAC may therefore still be considered by clinicians as a therapeutic option, but when available, patients should be enrolled on a clinical trial.
A Rare Presentation of Pancreatic Lymphoepithelial Cyst: A Case Report and Review
Pancreatic lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) is a rare, benign collection of keratinizing squamous epithelial cells encapsulated by lymphoid tissue. Because of its limited data and nonspecific features that can mimic malignant lesions, LECs can lead to unnecessary operations. A 62-year-old male with a known pancreatic mass presented with abdominal pain. CT scan showed an increased mass in the pancreatic head, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed “rare fragments of benign-appearing squamous epithelium in a background of keratin debris, cyst contents, and scattered lymphocytes,” consistent with a lymphoepithelial cyst. Pancreatic LEC is an extremely rare lesion that comprises of only 0.5% of all pancreatic cysts. EUS-FNA has become the mainstay for diagnosing pancreatic LECs. Given the slow growing and benign nature, conservative management and observation is adequate for pancreatic LECs with excellent long-term outcome. With increasing number of imaging ordered by clinicians, it is anticipated that there will be a greater number of incidental pancreatic LECs detected. Thus, EUS-FNA should be utilized more frequently to help distinguish benign pancreatic LECs from premalignant or malignant lesions to avoid surgery.
Cerebral Venous Infarction due to Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis: A Case Study and Review of Literature
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon disease entity. In contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance venography (MRV) images of the brain, CVST usually manifests as a filling defect of the dural venous sinuses. Brain parenchymal involvement in CVST can be ranged from parenchymal oedema to haemorrhagic infarctions. Though the most frequent cause of haemorrhagic infarction in brain is CVST, other rare causes such as cerebral venous outflow obstruction due to neck vein pathology have been reported. We report a rare case of haemorrhagic brain infarctions secondary to bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis in a 17-year-old woman, who has presented with worsening headache and seizures. She had high susceptibility of getting venous thrombosis for being a young female on oral contraceptive pills. While reporting a rare cause of cerebral haemorrhagic infarctions, this case report highlights the need for having a high degree of suspicion to diagnose CVST. Further, this case report emphasises the value of prompt and adequate imaging of neck veins if the haemorrhagic infarction presents with patent cerebral venous sinuses.