Emergence Delirium in a 29-Year-Old Man following an Uneventful AppendectomyRead the full article
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Diagnosis and Management of Acquired Hemophilia A: Case Reports and a Literature Review
Background. Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a potentially life-threatening autoimmune hemostatic disorder where autoantibodies that disrupt the functions of factor VIII (FVIII) are present in the circulation. The early diagnosis of AHA is difficult since the symptoms of AHA differ from those of congenital hemophilia A. Furthermore, the management of AHA is also more complex due to the presence of autoantibodies against FVIII (FVIII inhibitors). Here, we present three case reports and conduct a literature review of AHA with the aim to increase awareness and knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of AHA. Case Presentations. We present three patients diagnosed with AHA in these case reports. The first patient was a young female, while the second and third patients were middle-aged and elderly males, respectively. All patients presented with a chief complaint of bruises without hemarthrosis and a history of bleeding. Laboratory examinations of the patients revealed isolated prolonged aPTT, normal PT, and the presence of autoantibodies against factor VIII, which are characteristics of AHA. Patients were then treated with corticosteroids to reduce the titer level of autoantibodies and received factor VIII transfusion to stop bleeding. Conclusion. AHA can be suspected in patients presenting with symptoms of bruises without hemarthrosis and without the history of bleeding. Isolated aPTT elevation with normal PT should raise high suspicion of AHA. The presence of FVIII inhibitors can help to confirm the diagnosis of AHA. Treatment consists of factor VIII transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Bypassing agents are recommended as an alternative to FVIII transfusion.
Primary Retroperitoneal Malignant Melanoma with Involvement of Iliac Artery and Vein
Primary retroperitoneal melanoma is a very rare extracutaneous presentation of melanoma. In this case report, we present a 65-year-old female with unilateral lower extremity edema secondary to occlusion of iliac vessels by a primary retroperitoneal melanoma tumor. We also review the findings in other cases previously described in the literature.
A Family with a High Incidence of Migraine and Vestibular Migraine and a Case of Menière’s Disease
Vestibular migraine (VM) and Menière’s disease (MD) are common neurotological disorders causing episodic vertigo. Sometimes, VM is accompanied by cochlear symptoms suggestive for MD. Therefore, in those cases, the differential diagnosis between the two disorders can be difficult. Moreover, a comorbidity with migraine in MD patients is widely reported, up to the hypothesis of a possible MD-VM overlapping syndrome. In this brief case report, we consider the clinical history of a family presenting high incidence of subjects fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of VM and single case fulfilling criteria for definite MD. The relationship between VM and MD is still under debate; anyway, it can be speculated that commonly shared genetic mutations could play a role as predisposing factors in both disorders. A congenital nystagmus in the family was present too, but its correlation with the other conditions is still not clear. Future goal of our work will be to assess genetics in this family.
Neuroblastoma Soft Tissue Metastasis in a 10-Month-Old Infant with a Right Thigh Mass
Background. Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that occurs more frequently in pediatric populations. It may originate from any part of the sympathetic nervous system, but it most commonly arises from the paraspinal sympathetic ganglia in the abdomen or mediastinum. Local lymphadenopathy and distant metastasis to the central nervous system, orbit, and liver might be detected; however, it rarely includes soft tissue or musculoskeletal involvement. Case Report. Here, we report a 10-month-old infant presented with a right thigh mass with an otherwise benign physical exam and medical history. MRI of the lower extremities suggested tumoral infiltration in the soft tissue of both thighs, predominantly on the right side. Surgical pathology of the lesion confirmed neuroblastoma. A large subhepatic mass and paraaortic lymphadenopathy in the abdominal CT scan and metaiodobenzylguanidine scan findings favored primary abdominal neuroblastoma that had spread to lower extremities. The patient has been in remission since the completion of chemotherapy. Conclusion. Neuroblastoma should be considered in infants with an abnormal mass in extremities. Due to its aggressive nature, most patients struggle with distant and local tumor spread at diagnosis. Therefore, any abnormal signs and symptoms, especially in younger pediatrics, warrant immediate evaluation to avoid tumor expansion.
Clozapine-Induced Pericardial Effusion Presenting with Persistent Tachycardia
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used in refractory schizophrenia and depression. Its use is often complicated by its vast side-effect profile including cardiovascular reactions, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Specifically, the cardiac complications of clozapine have been shown to predominantly cause myocarditis and pericarditis. In this case report, the case of a 58-year-old male being treated for treatment-resistant depression and schizophrenia who suffers from tachycardia is presented. He is treated empirically for orthostatic hypotension with IV fluids without much success. Further imaging and echocardiography demonstrated a pericardial effusion, a rare reaction (≤1 : 10000) that has only been documented in a handful of case reports. This anecdotal evidence highlights the significance of polyserositis/pericardial effusion in the context of clozapine-induced orthostatic hypotension resistant to rehydration. When starting a patient on clozapine, it is important to consider further workup and monitoring with laboratory baseline biomarkers and cardiac evaluation with symptomatic individuals. Upon immediate cessation of clozapine, the pericardial effusion should spontaneously resolve without complication and should not be rechallenged.
Dengue Infection and Its Relationship with Evans Syndrome: A Pediatric Case
Dengue is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is an endemic virus in tropical countries. In Colombia, 4 serotypes are present, and the disease is a burden for public health, social programs, and the economic sectors. The main vector is Aedes aegypti, and most infections are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. The hemorrhagic appearances of severe dengue are due to plasma leakage as a result of increased vascular permeability, severe thrombopenia, and hemoconcentration. In 2020, 78,979 cases of dengue were reported in Colombia. 38,836 (49.2%) of them were warning-free signs, 39,246 (49.7%) with warning signs, and 897 (1.1%) of severe dengue. As it is well-known, viral diseases are immune system activators, triggering off a loss of tolerance in it. Dengue is not an exception, and it is able to explain different autoimmune phenomena including macrophage activation. Mechanisms have been described by which an exacerbated response of the disease is triggered through the increase of infected cells, formation of immune complexes, and complement pathway activation, which lead to a cross-reaction of viral antigens with epithelial cells with platelets with subsequent endothelial dysfunction and bleeds. The first description of Evans syndrome was made in 1951 by Robert Evans. This syndrome is characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and, less common/usual, immune neutropenia. This disease’s etiology is unknown, and the dysregulation of the immune system is among its possibilities. Here, we present the case of an unusual hematological and immunological complication of a patient who developed Evans syndrome during severe dengue, taking into account the concomitantly limited literature available for these two diseases, the need for a broader diagnostic approach, multidisciplinary intervention, and a more complex therapeutic approach.