Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2010, Article ID 836214, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/836214
Case Report

Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
2Institute of Neurosciences, Florence, Italy
3Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA

Received 14 December 2009; Accepted 9 March 2010

Academic Editor: Tian Po Oei

Copyright © 2010 Chiara Cecchelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Fleurence, R. Williamson, Y. Jing et al., “A systematic review of augmentation strategies for patients with major depressive disorder,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 42, pp. 57–90, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Wood and C. Reavill, “Aripiprazole acts as a selective dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 771–775, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. M. A. Gavrilin, L. E. Mathes, and M. Podell, “Methamphetamine enhances cell-associated feline immunodeficiency virus replication in astrocytes,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 240–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. P. J. Gaskill, T. M. Calderon, A. J. Luers, E. A. Eugenin, J. A. Javitch, and J. W. Berman, “Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of human macrophages is increased by dopamine: a bridge between HIV-associated neurologic disorders and drug abuse,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1148–1159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. F. McKenna, P. J McLaughlin, B. J Lewis et al., “Dopamine receptor expression on human T- and B-lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and NK cells: a flow cytometric study,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 132, no. 1-2, pp. 34–40, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. P. Kirillova, R. J. Hrutkay, M. R. Shurin, G. V. Shurin, I. L. Tourkova, and M. M. Vanyukov, “Dopamine receptors in human lymphocytes: radioligand binding and quantitative RT-PCR assays,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 272–280, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. L. Santambrogio, M. Lipartiti, A. Bruni, and R. Dal Toso, “Dopamine receptors on human T- and B-lymphocytes,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 113–119, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. W. Berman, M. J. Carson, L. Chang et al., “NeuroAIDS, drug abuse, and inflammation: building collaborative research activities,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 351–399, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. M. E. Thase and A. J. Rush, “When at first you don't succeed: sequential strategies for antidepressant nonresponders,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 58, supplement 13, pp. 23–29, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. G. Bing, M. A. Burnam, D. Longshore et al., “Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 721–728, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Walkup, W. Wei, U. Sambamoorthi, and S. Crystal, “Antidepressant treatment and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among patients with AIDS and diagnosed depression,” Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 43–53, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. I. C. Anthony and J. E. Bell, “The neuropathology of HIV/AIDS,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. G. J. Dore, P. K. Correll, Y. Li, J. M. Kaldor, D. A. Cooper, and B. J. Brew, “Changes to AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” AIDS, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1249–1253, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. A. Thomas, “Anti-HIV drug distribution to the central nervous system,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1313–1324, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. E. Davis, B. L. Hjelle, V. E. Miller et al., “Early viral brain invasion in iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection,” Neurology, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1736–1739, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Gartner and Y. Liu, “Insights into the role of immune activation in HIV neuropathogenesis,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 69–75, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. K. C. Williams and W. F. Hickey, “Central nervous system damage, monocytes and macrophages, and neurological disorders in AIDS,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 25, pp. 537–562, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. C. M. Buckner, A. J. Luers, T. M. Calderon, E. A. Eugenin, and J. W. Berman, “Neuroimmunity and the blood-brain barrier: molecular regulation of leukocyte transmigration and viral entry into the nervous system with a focus on neuroAIDS,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 160–181, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. S. Kramer-Hämmerle, I. Rothenaigner, H. Wolff, J. E. Bell, and R. Brack-Werner, “Cells of the central nervous system as targets and reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus,” Virus Research, vol. 111, pp. 194–213, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Arbaizar, T. Dierssen-Sotos, I. Gómez-Acebo, and J. Llorca, “Aripiprazole in major depression and mania: meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 31, pp. 478–483, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. E. Kristiansen and J. B. Hansen, “Inhibition of HIV replication by neuroleptic agents and their potential use in HIV infected patients with AIDS related dementia,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 209–213, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. E. Kristiansen, “The antimicrobial activity of psychotherapeutic drugs and stereo-isomeric analogues,” Danish Medical Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 165–182, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. Mortensen, J. E. Kristiansen, A. V. Christensen, and E. F. Hvidberg, “The antibacterial effect of some neuroleptics on strains isolated from patients with meningitis,” Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 449–451, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. E. Kristiansen and L. Amaral, “The potential management of resistant infections with non-antibiotics,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 319–327, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. J. G. Schiepers, M. C. Wichers, and M. Maes, “Cytokines and major depression,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 201–217, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. R. Williams, H. Yao, N. K. Dhillon, and S. J. Buch, “HIV-1 Tat co-operates with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha to increase CXCL10 in human astrocytes,” PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 5, article e5709, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  27. T. Kato, Y. Mizoguchi, A. Monji et al., “Inhibitory effects of aripiprazole on interferon-γ-induced microglial activation via intracellular Ca2+ regulation in vitro,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 815–825, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. N. Christeff, N. Gherbi, O. Mammes et al., “Serum cortisol and DHEA concentrations during HIV infection,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 22, supplement 1, pp. S11–S18, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus