Table 1: Reported causes of retroperitoneal bleeding (Medline 1950–2010).

Trauma

Iatrogenic
 Femoral catheterization
 Central line insertion
 Perforation v. cava + aorta by v. cava filter
 Erosion aorta by spine fixation material

Vascular

Aneurysms
 Aorta
 Renal artery
 Adrenal artery
 Uterine artery
 Pancreaticoduodenal artery
 Ovarian artery
Dissection
 Ovarian artery
 Inferior mesenteric artery
Spontaneous rupture
 Portal vein
 Splenic vein
 Superior mesenteric artery
 Uterine artery (at labor)
 Iliac vein
Other vascular causes
 Fibromuscular dysplasia of common iliac artery
 Arteriovenous malformation

Miscellaneous

 Idiopathic
 Pancreatic pseudocyst
 Varicosis due to liver cirrhosis
 Iliopsoas muscle bleeding
 Acute cholestatic viral hepatitis
 Dilatation v. cava due to right heart failure.
 Neurofibromatosis type I

(Ad)renal

Tumors
 Angiomyolipoma
 Phaeochromocytoma
 Renal cel carcinoma
Infections
 Abces
 Pyelonefritis
 Tuberculosis
Miscellaneous
 (ad)renal cysts
 Renal infarction
 Nephritis/nephrosclerosis
 Lymfangioma
 Transplant rejection
 Transplant rupture
 Kidney stones

Malignancies

Tumors
 Thymoma
 Gastric carcinoma
Metastasis
 NCSLC
 Choriocarcinoma
 HCC
 Small cell lung carcinoma
 Chondrosarcoma
 Gastric sarcoma

Systemic

Anticoagulants
Vasculitis
Hematologic disorders
 Leukemia
 Polycythemia
 Hemophilia
 ITP
Alcohol and NSAID use
Amyloidosis