Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 671365, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/671365
Case Report

Necrotizing Fasciitis in a Pediatric Patient Caused by Lancefield Group G Streptococcus: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

1Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
2Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 21 June 2011; Revised 27 September 2011; Accepted 11 October 2011

Academic Editor: Dianne L. Atkins

Copyright © 2011 John Rausch and Marc Foca. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Descamps, J. Aitken, and M. G. Lee, “Hippocrates on necrotising fasciitis,” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8921, p. 556, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. H. Wong, H. C. Chang, S. Pasupathy, L. W. Khin, J. L. Tan, and C. O. Low, “Necrotizing fasciitis: clinical presentation, microbiology, and determinants of mortality,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American, vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 1454–1460, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Wilson, “Necrotizing fasciitis,” The American Surgeon, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 416–431, 1952. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. Stamenkovic and P. D. Lew, “Early recognition of potentially fatal necrotizing fasciitis. The use of frozen-section biopsy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 310, no. 26, pp. 1689–1693, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Darmstadt, “Subcutaneous tissue infections and abscesses,” in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, S. Long, L. Pickering, and C. Prober, Eds., pp. 449–457, Churchill-Livingstone, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  6. WHO, “Necrotizing fasciitis. Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire/Section d'hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record,” Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, vol. 69, pp. 165–166, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. D. Fritzsche, “Soft-tissue infection: necrotizing fasciitis,” Plastic Surgical Nursing, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 155–159, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. K. Chapnick and E. I. Abter, “Necrotizing soft-tissue infections,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 835–855, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. V. Seal, “Necrotizing fasciitis,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Humar, V. Datta, D. J. Bast, B. Beall, J. C. S. De Azavedo, and V. Nizet, “Streptolysin S and necrotising infections produced by group G streptococcus,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9301, pp. 124–129, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. M. Sharma, R. Khatib, and M. Fakih, “Clinical characteristics of necrotizing fasciitis caused by group G Streptococcus: case report and review of the literature,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 468–471, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. McEntegart and H. A. Capell, “Necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 828–829, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. R. Kittang, N. Langeland, S. Skrede, and H. Mylvaganam, “Two unusual cases of severe soft tissue infection caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1484–1487, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. N. F. Crum and M. R. Wallace, “Group B streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome: a case report and review of the literature,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 35, no. 11-12, pp. 878–881, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Zaoutis, B. Schneider, L. S. Moore, and J. D. Klein, “Antibiotic susceptibilities of group C and group G streptococci isolated from patients with invasive infections: evidence of vancomycin tolerance among group G serotypes,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 3380–3383, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Iwata, Y. Arinuma, H. Nakayama et al., “An autopsy case of necrotizing fasciitis with rapidly progressive purpura caused by hemolytic streptococcal infection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis,” Modern Rheumatology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 669–672, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. A. Jackson, J. Colombo, and A. Boldrey, “Streptococcal fasciitis with toxic shock syndrome in the pediatric patient,” Orthopaedic Nursing/National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 4–8, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. H. Wong, L. W. Khin, K. S. Heng, K. C. Tan, and C. O. Low, “The LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score: a tool for distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from other soft tissue infections,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1535–1541, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. G. Wysoki, T. A. Santora, R. M. Shah, and A. C. Friedman, “Necrotizing fasciitis: CT characteristics,” Radiology, vol. 203, no. 3, pp. 859–863, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K.-T. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J. W. Lee et al., “Can necrotizing infectious fasciitis be differentiated from nonnecrotizing infectious fasciitis with MR imaging?” Radiology, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 816–824, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. M. Wronski, M. Slodkowski, W. Cebulski, D. Karkocha, and I. W. Krasnodebski, “Necrotizing fasciitis: early sonographic diagnosis,” Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 236–239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. G. Singh, S. K. Sinha, S. Adhikary, K. S. Babu, P. Ray, and S. K. Khanna, “Necrotising infections of soft tissues—a clinical profile,” European Journal of Surgery, vol. 168, no. 6, pp. 366–371, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. B. J. Childers, L. D. Potyondy, R. Nachreiner et al., “Necrotizing fasciitis: a fourteen-year retrospective study of 163 consecutive patients,” American Surgeon, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 109–116, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. H. Ahrenholz, “Necrotizing soft-tissue infections,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 199–214, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. C. Elliott, J. A. Kufera, and R. A. M. Myers, “Necrotizing soft tissue infections: risk factors for mortality and strategies for management,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 224, no. 5, pp. 672–683, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Hassan, R. F. Mullins, B. C. Friedman et al., “Treating necrotizing fasciitis with or without hyperbaric oxygen therapy,” Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 115–123, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. R. McHenry, J. J. Piotrowski, D. Petrinic et al., “Determinants of mortality for necrotizing soft-tissue infections,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 221, no. 5, pp. 558–565, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y.-L. Kuo, S.-J. Shieh, H.-Y. Chiu, and J.-W. Lee, “Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus: epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment and prevention,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 785–792, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. J. Gaviria and A. Bisno, “Group C and G streptococci,” in Streptococcal Infections: Clinical Aspects, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology, D. Stevens and E. Kaplan, Eds., pp. 238–254, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. H. Gillespie, “Microbes sans frontières,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9301, pp. 93–95, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. P. C. Y. Woo, A. M. Y. Fung, S. K. P. Lau, S. S. Y. Wong, and K. Y. Yuen, “Group G beta-hemolytic Streptococcal bacteremia characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 3147–3155, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Yamaoka, T. Ogihara, M. Yasui et al., “Neonatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 979–981, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. G. Wagner, P. M. Schlievert, A. P. Assimacopoulos, J. A. Stoehr, P. J. Carson, and K. Komadina, “Acute group G streptococcal myositis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: case report and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1159–1161, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Russell, R. G. Watts, S. A. Royal, and D. C. Barnhart, “Group A streptococcal infection of an intramuscular venous malformation: a case report and review of the literature,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 839–841, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. S. Binyamini, D. Ergas, P. I. Herskovitz, and Z. M. Sthoeger, “Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation associated with necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 336, no. 6, pp. 527–529, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus