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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 468452, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/468452
Case Report

An Unusual Presentation of Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Jackson Memorial Hospital, 1611 North West 12th Avenue, Miami, FL 33101, USA

Received 28 November 2011; Revised 22 February 2012; Accepted 13 March 2012

Academic Editor: Glenn Bubley

Copyright © 2012 Danica Maria Vodopivec et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia in patients with a malignancy. When these laboratory abnormalities develop rapidly, clinical complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure, seizures, or death may occur. TLS is caused by rapid release of intracellular contents by dying tumor cells, a condition that is expected to be common in hematologic malignancies. However, TLS rarely occurs with solid tumors, and here we present the second chemotherapy-induced TLS in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma to be reported in the literature. We also provide information regarding the total cases of TLS in solid tumors reported from 1977 to present day. Our methodology involved identifying key articles from existing reviews of the literature and then using search terms from these citations in MEDLINE to find additional publications. We relied on a literature review published in 2003 by Baeksgaard et al., where they gathered all total 45 cases reported from 1977 to 2003. Then, we looked for new reported cases from 2004 to present day. All reports (case reports, brief reports, letters to editor, correspondence, reviews, journals, and short communications) identified through these searches were reviewed and included.