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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 197374, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/197374
Case Report

Calcium Unresponsive Hypocalcemic Tetany: Gitelman Syndrome with Hypocalcemia

Department of Nephrology, Narayana Medical College, Chintareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh 524003, India

Received 4 May 2013; Accepted 20 August 2013

Academic Editor: Maxwell V. Meng

Copyright © 2013 Madhav Desai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Gitelman’s syndrome (GS) is autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. It is usually associated with normal serum calcium. We report a patient presented with hypocalcemic tetany, and evaluation showed Gitelman’s syndrome with hypocalcemia. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman presented with cramps of the arms, legs, fatigue, and carpal spasms of one week duration. She has history of similar episodes on and off for the past two years. Her blood pressure was 98/66 mmHg. Chvostek’s sign and Trousseau’s sign were positive. Evaluation showed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. Self-medication, diuretic use, laxative abuse, persistent vomiting, and diarrhoea were ruled out. Urinary prostaglandins and genetic testing could not be done because of nonavailability. To differentiate Gitelman syndrome from Bartter’s syndrome (BS), thiazide loading test was done. It showed blunted fractional chloride excretion. GS was confirmed and patient was treated with spironolactone along with magnesium, calcium, and potassium supplementation. Symptomatically, she improved and did not develop episodes of tetany again. Conclusion. In tetany patient along with serum calcium measurement, serum magnesium, serum potassium, and arterial blood gases should be measured. Even though hypocalcemia in Gitelman syndrome is rare, it still can occur.