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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 613845, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/613845
Case Report

A Case of Hemophagocytic Syndrome due to Tuberculosis: Uncommon Manifestation of a Common Disease

Department of Medicine, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research and SSKM Hospital, 242 AJC Bose Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700020, India

Received 20 August 2014; Revised 28 September 2014; Accepted 12 October 2014; Published 27 October 2014

Academic Editor: Abhay R. Satoskar

Copyright © 2014 Arijit Singha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hemophagocytic syndrome, also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is the manifestation of immune dysregulation. It is associated with ineffective but exaggerated immune response and infiltration of active lymphocytes and histiocytes in various organs. This devastating clinical condition has myriad of clinical and biochemical manifestations such as fever, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hypertrygliceridemia, and hyperferritinemia. It can be either primary or secondary. Primary HLH usually presents in childhood. Secondary HLH occurs due to infection mostly viruses but other aetiologies are also important as early detection and treatment may improve survival. Hemophagocytosis due to tuberculosis is uncommon. Only handful of cases have been reported mostly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with disseminated tuberculosis in an immunocompetent women highlighting early diagnosis and treatment is a demanding need in this devastating disease.