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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3089303, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3089303
Case Report

Understanding the Impact of Omega-3 Rich Diet on the Gut Microbiota

1Division of Clinical & Translational Research, Larkin Community Hospital, South Miami, FL 33143, USA
2Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
3Department of Infectious Disease and Response, Saba University School of Medicine, Saba, Dutch Caribbean, Netherlands

Received 7 November 2015; Revised 11 February 2016; Accepted 17 February 2016

Academic Editor: Gerald S. Supinski

Copyright © 2016 Blanca S. Noriega et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Recently, the importance of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several disorders has gained clinical interests. Among exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, diet appears to have the largest effect. Fatty acids, especially omega-3 polyunsaturated, ameliorate a range of several diseases, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory and cancer. Fatty acids associated beneficial effects may be mediated, to an important extent, through changes in gut microbiota composition. We sought to understand the changes of the gut microbiota in response to an omega-3 rich diet. Case Presentation. This case study investigated changes of gut microbiota with an omega-3 rich diet. Fecal samples were collected from a 45-year-old male who consumed 600 mg of omega-3 daily for 14 days. After the intervention, species diversity was decreased, but several butyrate-producing bacteria increased. There was an important decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp. Gut microbiota changes were reverted after the 14-day washout. Conclusion. Some of the health-related benefits of omega-3 may be due, in part, to increases in butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms explaining the effects of omega-3 in several chronic diseases and may also serve as an existing foundation for tailoring personalized medical treatments.