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Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 2347810, 3 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2347810
Case Report

Multiple Osteolytic Lesions Causing Hypercalcemia: A Rare Presentation of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

1Faculty of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
2Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Muhammad Ubaid; moc.liamg@khcdiaburd

Received 29 March 2017; Accepted 13 June 2017; Published 17 July 2017

Academic Editor: Simone Cesaro

Copyright © 2017 Khalid Mahmood et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by unchecked proliferation of malignant lymphoblasts which replaces the normal bone marrow culminating in anemia due to red blood cells inadequacy as well as in easy bruising/bleeding secondary to insufficient platelets production. Even the white blood cells which are produced excessively are immature and abnormal. ALL is the most common hematological malignancy in children. Most commonly, patients present with lymphadenopathy, recurrent infections, bleeding, fatigue, and bone pains. Bone pains, often particularly involving long bones, occur in about 21–38% of cases and are due to overcrowding of bone marrow with malignant cells. Vast majority of children with ALL have thrombocytopenia and/or anemia with a normal or mildly elevated white blood cells count with the presence of lymphoblasts on peripheral smear. About 50% of children present with bleeding while about 75% of patients have platelet count 100,000/microL. Visceromegaly is not uncommon but osteolytic lesions and hypercalcemia are rather uncommon. We present a 22-year-old gentleman with generalized fatigue and bone pains without visceromegaly. There was severe hypercalcemia with normal parathyroid levels but multiple osteolytic lesions. Peripheral smear showed anemia without blasts, whereas a bone marrow biopsy revealed > 30% blasts with interspersed CD 10 positive cells.