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Case Reports in Nephrology publishes case reports and case series focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders, including cancer. The journal also focuses on advances in transplantation techniques.
Case Reports in Nephrology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Various Forms of Nephrotic Syndrome in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Kidney involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), although it may not be present from disease onset. Renal lupus itself is highly heterogenous with respect to the combination and/or severity of clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. This is a case of a 45-year-old Caucasian female with an established diagnosis of SLE, who presented four times with new onset of proteinuria during a follow-up time of ten years, since the diagnosis of SLE. Specifically, she experienced two episodes of lupus membranous nephropathy, and after she achieved remission, she developed twice overt nephrotic syndrome associated with new and biopsy proven lupus podocytopathy. All these episodes of nephrotic syndrome were combined with systemic symptoms, attributed to lupus itself, while serological activity of lupus was also noted. This case highlights the importance of performing a kidney biopsy in all patients with SLE who have new renal manifestations, including nephrotic proteinuria.
Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia in a Young Male with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease
Gingival hyperplasia is a rare finding in clinical practice. Nevertheless, when it occurs, it is a finding of great value as it can lead to definite clinical diagnosis. The present case is a 19-year-old male who was referred for further management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease. On evaluation, he was found to have gingival hyperplasia. He was evaluated for reversible causes of kidney disease, and since none were found, renal replacement therapy was advised. He had been taking amlodipine for blood pressure control. As this was presumed to be the cause of gingival hyperplasia, it was stopped and replaced by a combination of beta-blocker and prazosin. At six-month follow-up, he had complete resolution of gingival hyperplasia. Amlodipine as a cause of gingival hyperplasia is a rare occurrence. However, it is crucial to keep in mind such a possible side effect of this commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug.
Clinicopathological Implications of Proteinuria after Long-Term Isolated Hematuria due to Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
A 45-year-old obese man presented with persistent hematuria for 21 years. At the age of 37, he developed hypertension and proteinuria which later increased up to 1.6 g/g creatinine. Kidney biopsy revealed thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which explained his urinary abnormalities. Although a subgroup of TBMN can be complicated by FSGS, his FSGS was associated with obesity because of its histological features. Reduction of body weight and increasing a dose of angiotensin-receptor blocker could transiently reduce the amount of proteinuria. Clinicopathological implications of proteinuria after long-term hematuria by TBMN and FSGS were further discussed.
Intravitreal Injection of Anti-VEGF Antibody Induces Glomerular Endothelial Cells Injury
Introduction. Antiangiogenic agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor have emerged as important tools in cancer therapy and ocular diseases. Their systemic use can induce renal limited microangiopathy. Local use of anti-VEGF agent is supposed to be safe. We report here a unique case of early endothelial cells injury induced by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old man was addressed for acute kidney injury with proteinuria. He was under treatment with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for glaucoma. Kidney biopsy was performed and electron microscopy showed signs of early stages of glomerular microangiopathy. Bevacizumab was discontinued resulting in the improvement of renal function and albuminuria. Discussion. Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF is an approved therapy for metastatic cancer. Systemic adverse events including thrombotic microangiopathy have been mainly reported after its systemic injection. Podocytes produce VEGF that interacts with endothelial cells VEGF receptor-2 maintaining glomerular basement membrane integrity. Bevacizumab induce the detachment of endothelial cells from glomerular basement membrane leading to the proteinuria and renal function decline. Intravitreal bevacizumab is generally supposed to be safe. However, glomerular injury with microangiopathy features, even after intravitreal injection is possible. Conclusion. We report the electron microscopy evidence that intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF induces glomerular endothelial cells injury. Nephrologists and ophthalmologists should be aware of this complication.
A Case Report on Pasteurella multocida Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis: When Cats Think Medical Equipment Are Toys
Pasteurella multocida is an aerobic gram-negative coccobacillus usually found in the oral cavities of most healthy cats and dogs as part of their natural oral flora. This zoonotic pathogen can cause a variety of infections in humans through bites, scratches, or licking. Infections range from less severe cases, such as infected animal bites and cellulitis, to more severe cases of pneumonia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, sepsis, and meningitis. However, the number of reported cases of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis caused by P. multocida has been limited worldwide. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old man undergoing continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis who developed P. multocida peritonitis, believed to be secondary to domestic cat exposure to dialysis equipment. Due to the increasing trend of pet ownership, patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis should be educated on the importance of strict hygiene and avoiding pet contact with the dialysis equipment, especially in bag exchange areas. Although the best means of preventing such infections is to avoid having pets at home, the positive psychological effects of pet ownership should also be considered. Thus, patients in such situations should be continuously educated and encouraged to be mindful of the importance of environmental hygiene.
Two Cases of the MYH9 Disorder Fechtner Syndrome Diagnosed from Observation of Peripheral Blood Cells before End-Stage Renal Failure
As a MYH9 disorder, Fechtner syndrome is characterized by nephritis, giant platelets, granulocyte inclusion bodies (Döhle-like bodies), cataract, and sensorineural deafness. Observation of peripheral blood smear for the presence of thrombocytopenia, giant platelets, and granulocyte inclusion bodies (Döhle-like bodies) is highly important for the early diagnosis of MYH9 disorders. In our two cases, sequencing analysis of the MYH9 gene indicated mutations in exon 24. Both cases were diagnosed as the MYH9 disorders Fechtner syndrome before end-stage renal failure on the basis of the observation of peripheral blood smear.