Rifampicin-Associated Secondary Minimal Change Disease Presenting with Nephrotic Syndrome in a Pulmonary Tuberculosis PatientRead the full article
Case Reports in Nephrology publishes case reports and case series focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders, including cancer. The journal also focuses on advances in transplantation techniques.
Case Reports in Nephrology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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A Case of De Novo Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease Presenting during Pregnancy
Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a case of a young female diagnosed with antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease during pregnancy. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old woman approximately 15 weeks pregnant experienced weakness, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia for one week and anuria for 48 hours. No known drug allergies and no significant social or family history for kidney or genitourinary disease were reported. Laboratory analysis revealed anemia, life-threatening hyperkalemia, AKI, and elevated antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. Renal biopsy revealed 100% cellular crescents, confirming the diagnosis. The patient was treated using plasmapheresis and methylprednisolone followed by oral steroids, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. At 24 weeks and 4 days of gestation, the patient had hypoxic respiratory failure as well as preterm premature rupture of membranes. Due to the development of infection and lack of renal recovery, immunosuppression was discontinued. At 28 weeks and 0 days of gestation, the patient developed uncontrollable hypertension requiring emergent delivery. Postpartum, her hypertension improved without signs of preeclampsia though still requires dialysis. Discussion. Pregnancy presents a unique challenge for providers treating patients with anti-GBM disease. Fetal safety should be considered and risks thoroughly discussed with the patient when choosing an immunosuppressive regimen for this condition.
Targeting Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: A Role of Online Hemodiafiltration with Asymmetric Cellulose Triacetate in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients—A Report of 10 Cases
Early reports have suggested that maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients could be more susceptible to a severe course of COVID-19. Among the therapeutic approaches, the use of drugs that reduce the cytokine storm characteristic of this disease has been proposed. Some dialyzers, such as the new generation of asymmetric cellulose triacetate (ATA) membranes, could favor the effective elimination of medium-sized molecules and other inflammatory mediators. In this case series, we describe in depth the clinical, analytical, and radiological details, therapeutic aspects, and outcomes of the case series of 10 MHD patients of our dialysis unit, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 5 October to 30 November 2020. Furthermore, we evaluate the removal of hyperinflammatory parameters with the ATA membrane in postdilution online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) in these patients through a variety of biomarkers of systemic inflammation from the diagnosis until stripping. Biochemical blood analysis was carried out at baseline and at days 7 and 14 after diagnosis, respectively. 50% of the patients presented COVID-19 pneumonia and required hospital admission. Median hospitalization time was 21 days. A total of 4 patients developed severe pneumonia (3 of them died) and 1 patient developed moderate pneumonia. Patients who died (n = 3) were more likely to present bilateral pneumonia (100% vs 14.3%) at diagnosis and less reduction in interleukin 6 (IL-6) at day 14, as compared to those who survived. The use of the ATA membrane could be considered a therapeutic option, due to its immunomodulatory effect in MHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially at the beginning of the disease, where the inflammatory component is predominant.
Evaluation and Transplantation of a SARS-CoV-2 Seropositive Kidney Candidate
The COVID-19 pandemic affected transplant center activity in areas with high number of cases such as New York City and prompted reevaluation of patients awaiting organ transplant diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To resume safe transplantation at our center, we found it necessary to (1) identify transplant candidates with possible exposure to or history of COVID-19 infection, (2) outline a clinical and laboratory assessment to determine adequate clinical recovery from COVID-19 for transplantation, and (3) determine whether the possibility of perioperative COVID-19 transmission from the patient to staff would pose unacceptable risk. Here, we describe our center’s approach to proceeding with transplantation in a SARS-CoV-2 seropositive living donor kidney transplant recipient and describe early posttransplant outcomes.
Refractory Acute Interstitial Nephritis in the Setting of Nivolumab Therapy
A 65-year-old male patient with metastatic CCRCC developed steroid-dependent, grade 3 AIN secondary to nivolumab weeks after its initiation that resulted in 3 hospitalizations with acute renal failure. The patient was started on MM and his AIN was successfully controlled after a 2-year period of follow-up. Refractory renal AIN resulting from PD-1 inhibitor use is rare, and its successful treatment with mofetil mycophenolate with a 2-year follow-up in a patient with metastatic CCRCC has not been reported. This case is important because not only was his renal irAEs controlled but also long-term treatment with MM did not result in progression of metastatic disease.
Listeria monocytogenes Peritonitis in a Patient Receiving Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. Only a handful of cases have been reported, and the optimal management is still uncertain. We present a case of Listeria monocytogenes peritonitis and perform a review of the literature to elucidate optimal antibiotic therapy.
Case Report on Anastomosing Haemangioma: An Unusual Vascular Tumor in Kidney
Anastomosing haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which may mimic angiosarcoma histologically. We here present a case of anastomosing haemangioma arising from the kidney. This patient presented with a large kidney mass and adrenal mass. The clinical and radiological findings were suspicious for renal cell carcinoma with metastasis. Radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were thus performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical studies concluded a diagnosis of anastomosing haemangioma of the kidney and concurrent adrenal cortical adenoma. It is important to differentiate this tumor from other borderline or malignant vascular neoplasms.