Case Reports in Nephrology / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

Acute Kidney Failure in a Young African American Male

Table 1

Etiologic factors and clinical manifestations of retroperitoneal fibrosis.

Etiologic factors

DrugsMethysergide and other ergot alkaloids, and less commonly, beta blockers, methyldopa, hydralazine, analgesics, etanercept, infliximab
MalignancyLymphoma, sarcoma, carcinoid, metastatic disease from primary cancers [e.g. gastrointestinal, breast, lung, genitourinary tract, thyroid])
Proliferative/infiltrative diseasesErdheim-Chester disease, other histiocytosis, IgG4-related diseases
InfectionsMycobacterium tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, actinomycosis
OthersRadiation, asbestos exposure, trauma, idiopathic
Clinical manifestations

Constitutional symptoms (as a result of underlying disease or consequences of any complications above)Mild fevers, fatigue, sleepiness, anorexia, hypertension
Circulatory systemAorta and its branches: Limb ischemia, claudication, testicular pain
Inferior vena cava: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis/phlebitis, lower extremity edema, varicocele
Gastrointestinal systemPancreas: Pancreatitis (may be associated with underlying etiology of RPF, i.e. IgG4-related disease)
Intestines (duodenum, ascending and descending colong): Abdominal pain (typically back, nonspecific to lower abdomen), abdominal distension, nausea, weight loss
Urinary tractAdrenals: Fatigue, malaise
Kidneys, ureters: Oliguria, anuria, kidney failure
Lymphatic systemLumbar lymph nodes: Lower extremity edema, testicular hydrocele

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