Protracted COVID-19 during Treatment of Facial PalsyRead the full article
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine publishes case reports and case series focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as abnormal neurological function.
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HaNDL Syndrome Presenting with Thunderclap Headache
Introduction. Transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is defined as a secondary, nonvascular headache disorder characterized by the findings described in its name. Patients with HaNDL syndrome typically present with gradual onset migrainous headaches of moderate to severe intensity with transient neurological symptoms. Case Report. We discuss a patient who presented with thunderclap headache, recent transient neurologic deficits, and was ultimately diagnosed with HaNDL after an extensive neurologic evaluation. Conclusion. Thunderclap headache has very rarely been described in patients with HaNDL. After excluding emergent and secondary causes, HaNDL should be considered in patients with thunderclap-quality headaches, particularly when there is a history of transient neurological symptoms.
Thunderclap Headache: A Primary Symptom of a Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Thunderclap headache is frequently associated with serious intracranial vascular disorders and a usual reason for emergency department admissions. Association of thunderclap headaches with autoimmune disorders, such as steroid-responsive encephalopathy with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is highly unusual. Here, we report a patient who presented with high-intensity headache of abrupt onset. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed moderate lymphocytic pleocytosis without evidence of infectious, neoplastic, or metabolic causes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no specific pathologies, and examinations for neuronal antibodies in serum and CSF were negative. The medical history revealed that seven years before, an episode of an aseptic meningoencephalitis with remarkable response to steroids was present. Finally, increased levels of serum anti-TPO antibodies were identified, and against the background of a previous steroid-responsive aseptic meningoencephalitis, diagnosis of SREAT was highly probable. Methylprednisolone therapy was initiated, and the patient recovered completely. In particular, because most SREAT patients respond very well to steroids, this case underlines the importance of taking SREAT into consideration during the assessment of a high-intensity headache of abrupt onset.
Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient after Acute COVID-19 Infection
A 90-year-old African American female with multiple comorbidities and a severe COVID-19 infection was discharged home in stable condition after two weeks of hospitalization. A week later, she developed new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures requiring readmission to the hospital. The patient’s clinical course and brain imaging supported PRES. Her mentation returned to baseline with supportive care and anticonvulsant treatment. Follow-up brain MRI four months later demonstrated resolution of FLAIR signal abnormalities confirming PRES. SARS-CoV-2 insult on the cerebrovascular endothelial cells likely continued and despite the clinical recovery eventually resulted in PRES. We believe that this is the first case describing the presentation of PRES after recovery from severe acute COVID-19 infection.
Meningoencephalitis with Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi Leading to a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula
Invasive infection with Lancefield group C streptococci in humans is extremely rare, with the vast majority of clinical isolates belonging to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. We report a case of meningoencephalitis in a 69-year-old man caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, a microbe that causes strangles in Equus caballus (i.e., the horse). This is only the fourth infection with this subtype of the central nervous system (CNS) reported in humans. The invasiveness of these bacteria, known to be capable of releasing strongly immunogenic exotoxins, is illustrated by white matter lesions that are present in the acute phase. This patient initially recovered well after treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids. However, the patient was readmitted 5 months later with multiple intraparenchymatous cerebral haemorrhages. Cerebral angiography confirmed the presence of a suspected superficial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which is seldom reported after CNS infection. The invasiveness of these bacteria was illustrated by white matter lesions present in the acute phase and the occurrence of a de novo dural arteriovenous fistula in the follow-up period.
Prolonged Postoperative Pyrexia and Transient Nonnephrogenic Vasopressin-Analogue-Resistant Polyuria following Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of an Infundibular Epidermoid Cyst
Prolonged postoperative pyrexia (PPP) due to Mollaret’s meningitis following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) for an intracranial epidermoid cyst can be confused with postoperative meningeal infection after transsphenoidal resection, especially in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. Anosmia, as well as dysgeusia, cannot be evaluated in patients of eTSS for a while after surgery. We report a case of an infundibular epidermoid cyst with post-eTSS Mollaret’s meningitis (MM). The post-eTSS MM caused vasopressin-analogue-resistant polyuria (VARP) in synchronization with PPP. A 59-year-old man experiencing recurrent headaches and irregular bitemporal hemianopsia over three months was diagnosed with a suprasellar tumor. The suprasellar tumor was an infundibular cyst from the infundibular recess to the posterior lobe of the pituitary, which was gross-totally resected including the neurohypophysis via an extended eTSS. Since awakening from general anesthesia after the gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor, the patient continuously had suffered from headache until the 13th postoperative day (POD13). The patient took analgesics once a day before the surgery and three times a day after the surgery until POD11. Pyrexia (37.5–39.5 degree Celsius) in synchronization with nonnephrogenic VARP remitted on POD18. Intravenous antibiotics had little effect on changes of pyrexia. Serum procalcitonin values (reference range <0.5 ng/mL) are 0.07 ng/mL on POD12 and 0.06 ng/mL on POD18. His polyuria came to react with sublingual desmopressin after alleviation of pyrexia. He left the hospital under hormone replacement therapy without newly added neurological sequelae other than hypopituitarism. After GTR of an infundibular epidermoid cyst, based on values of serum procalcitonin, post-eTSS MM can be distinguished from infection and can be treated with symptomatic treatments. The postoperative transient nonnephrogenic VARP that differs from usual central diabetes insipidus can react with sublingual desmopressin after alleviation of PPP in the clinical course of post-eTSS MM. An infundibular epidermoid cyst should be sufficiently resected in one sitting to minimize comorbidities, its recurrence, or postoperative MM to the utmost.
B12 Deficiency and Clinical Presentation in the Setting of Nitric Oxide Use
B12 deficiency can arise symptomatically from an array of varying pathologies including frank deficiency from strict vegan diets. Other high-risk contributing pathological conditions include chronic alcoholism, autoimmune disease, and chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, and it is also seen in those with a history of gastric surgery. Additionally, the elderly are at an increased risk as are patients prescribed certain medications. Uncommonly suspected causes of B12 deficiency include the abuse of recreational nitrous oxide (NO) given its interference with cobalt oxidation. Here, we report two cases of hypovitaminosis B12 in association with NO abuse in an effort to highlight an increasingly dangerous trend with recreational use. Importantly, we aim to increase visibility of this malady given that improperly diagnosed neurologic deterioration following NO anesthesia has been shown to become irreversible and may even result in death.