Vertigo and Cytotoxic Lesions of the Corpus Callosum: Report with Review of the LiteratureRead the full article
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine publishes case reports and case series focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as abnormal neurological function.
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Diffuse Gonococcal Infection (DGI) in a Patient with Treatment-Refractory Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody-Positive (AChR+) Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (gMG) Treated with Eculizumab
Patients receiving complement inhibitor, eculizumab, are at high risk for infections with encapsulated organisms such as Neisseria due to impaired opsonophagocytic activity. Impaired complement immunity may increase the risk for dissemination of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Disseminated Gonococcal Infection (DGI) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication associated with eculizumab. Physicians should obtain adequate sexual histories from the patients and educate them on safe sexual practices. Here, we describe a case of DGI in a 32-year-old African American female patient with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), receiving eculizumab.
Protracted COVID-19 during Treatment of Facial Palsy
Neurologic manifestations are increasingly reported as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues. This is a report of a COVID-19 patient with Bell's palsy. Case Summary. A 52-year-old man with fever and malaise was tested positive for COVID-19. After a week, he developed right-sided peripheral facial palsy and was treated with corticosteroids in conjunction with antiviral treatment which resulted in complete recovery. Discussion. Concomitant treatment of corticosteroids and antiviral treatment can decrease morbidity in patients with COVID-19-related Bell's palsy.
HaNDL Syndrome Presenting with Thunderclap Headache
Introduction. Transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is defined as a secondary, nonvascular headache disorder characterized by the findings described in its name. Patients with HaNDL syndrome typically present with gradual onset migrainous headaches of moderate to severe intensity with transient neurological symptoms. Case Report. We discuss a patient who presented with thunderclap headache, recent transient neurologic deficits, and was ultimately diagnosed with HaNDL after an extensive neurologic evaluation. Conclusion. Thunderclap headache has very rarely been described in patients with HaNDL. After excluding emergent and secondary causes, HaNDL should be considered in patients with thunderclap-quality headaches, particularly when there is a history of transient neurological symptoms.
Thunderclap Headache: A Primary Symptom of a Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Thunderclap headache is frequently associated with serious intracranial vascular disorders and a usual reason for emergency department admissions. Association of thunderclap headaches with autoimmune disorders, such as steroid-responsive encephalopathy with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is highly unusual. Here, we report a patient who presented with high-intensity headache of abrupt onset. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed moderate lymphocytic pleocytosis without evidence of infectious, neoplastic, or metabolic causes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no specific pathologies, and examinations for neuronal antibodies in serum and CSF were negative. The medical history revealed that seven years before, an episode of an aseptic meningoencephalitis with remarkable response to steroids was present. Finally, increased levels of serum anti-TPO antibodies were identified, and against the background of a previous steroid-responsive aseptic meningoencephalitis, diagnosis of SREAT was highly probable. Methylprednisolone therapy was initiated, and the patient recovered completely. In particular, because most SREAT patients respond very well to steroids, this case underlines the importance of taking SREAT into consideration during the assessment of a high-intensity headache of abrupt onset.
Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient after Acute COVID-19 Infection
A 90-year-old African American female with multiple comorbidities and a severe COVID-19 infection was discharged home in stable condition after two weeks of hospitalization. A week later, she developed new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures requiring readmission to the hospital. The patient’s clinical course and brain imaging supported PRES. Her mentation returned to baseline with supportive care and anticonvulsant treatment. Follow-up brain MRI four months later demonstrated resolution of FLAIR signal abnormalities confirming PRES. SARS-CoV-2 insult on the cerebrovascular endothelial cells likely continued and despite the clinical recovery eventually resulted in PRES. We believe that this is the first case describing the presentation of PRES after recovery from severe acute COVID-19 infection.
Meningoencephalitis with Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi Leading to a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula
Invasive infection with Lancefield group C streptococci in humans is extremely rare, with the vast majority of clinical isolates belonging to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. We report a case of meningoencephalitis in a 69-year-old man caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, a microbe that causes strangles in Equus caballus (i.e., the horse). This is only the fourth infection with this subtype of the central nervous system (CNS) reported in humans. The invasiveness of these bacteria, known to be capable of releasing strongly immunogenic exotoxins, is illustrated by white matter lesions that are present in the acute phase. This patient initially recovered well after treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids. However, the patient was readmitted 5 months later with multiple intraparenchymatous cerebral haemorrhages. Cerebral angiography confirmed the presence of a suspected superficial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which is seldom reported after CNS infection. The invasiveness of these bacteria was illustrated by white matter lesions present in the acute phase and the occurrence of a de novo dural arteriovenous fistula in the follow-up period.