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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2401809, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2401809
Case Report

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

1Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 South Gongti Road, Beijing 100020, China
2Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 South Gongti Road, Beijing 100020, China

Received 17 April 2016; Accepted 13 June 2016

Academic Editor: Mehmet Turgut

Copyright © 2016 Jun-liang Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.