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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3263718, 3 pages
Case Report

Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Positive Anti-NMDAR and Anti-AMPAR Antibodies Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis

1Department of Neurology, Arlon Hospital, No. 137, Rue des Déportés, 6700 Arlon, Belgium
2Oncology Department, CH Luxembourg, Rue Nicolas-Ernest Barblé, No. 4, L 1210 Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Received 30 August 2016; Accepted 14 November 2016

Academic Editor: Peter Berlit

Copyright © 2016 Sabina Boangher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We report the case of a 66-year-old woman, with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, treated 6 months earlier for bladder neoplasia. The patient presented to the emergency room with rapidly increasing symptoms, noninfectious cerebral spinal fluid associated with positive anti-NMDAR (as well as in serum) and positive AMPAR antibodies in the serum. Four months later, the patient was diagnosed with a small-cell lung cancer for which chemotherapy and radiotherapy was commenced. Simultaneously, endoscopic surgical treatment was undertaken for an in situ relapse of the bladder neoplasm. After the completion of 3 cycles of chemotherapy her neurological status temporarily worsened. The cerebral MRI did not show signs of encephalitis such as increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity in the mesial temporal lobes and limbic systems. No specific treatment was prescribed. Limbic encephalitis can be associated with malignant tumors such as lung carcinoma. Several cases reported in the literature have shown cognitive improvement after tumoral therapy. Regarding our experience, significant progress was achieved through immuno-modulatory treatment. A transitory deterioration of the cognitive process was perceived during the chemotherapy sessions.